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Fill in the gaps in the sentences



UNIT 1.

Translate the following words and learn them.

manufacture gasoline
vehicle precision
engine consumption
body service
tire quantity
battery include
fuel exclude
invention distributive
producer important
development precision

Read and translate the text.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The automotive industry includes all those companies and activities involved in the manufacture of motor vehicles, including most components, such as engines and bodies, but excluding tires, batteries, and fuel. The industry's principal product is passenger automobiles; commercial vehicles though important to the industry, are secondary.

The history of the automobile industry, while brief compared with that of many other industries, has exceptional interest because of its effects on 20th century history. Although the automobile originated in Europe, the United States completely dominated the world industry for the first half of the 20th century through the invention of mass-production techniques. In the second half of the century the situation altered sharply as western European countries and Japan became major producers and exporters.

Although steam-powered road vehicles were produced earlier, the origins of the automotive industry are rooted in the development of the gasoline engine in the 1860s and 1870s, principally in France and Germany. By the beginning of the 20th century, Germany, and France manufacturers had been joined by British, Italian, and U.S. makers.

The outstanding contribution of the automotive industry to technological advance was the introduction of full-scale mass production, a process combining precision, standardization, interchangeability, synchronization, and continuity. Mass production was a U.S. innovation.

Mass production implies mass consumption, which in turn requires an elaborate distributive organization to sell the cars and to develop confidence among customers that adequate service will be available. In the early days of the industry, cars were sold directly from the factory or through independent dealers, who might handle several different makes. When sales in large quantities became the objective, however, more elaborate and better organized techniques of distribution became essential.



The automotive industry has become a vital element in the economy of the industrialized countries: motor vehicle production and sales are one of the major indexes of the state of the economy of those countries.

 

3. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answers.

1. The industry's principal products are commercial vehicles. 2. The automobile originated in Europe and it completely dominated the world industry for the first half of the 20th century. 3. By the beginning of the 20th century western European countries and Japan became major producers and exporters of automobiles. 4. The main contribution of the automotive industry to technological progress was the introduction of full-scale mass-production.

Answer the following questions.

1. The automotive industry is one of the main branches of national economy, isn't it? What does it include? 2. Why is the history of the automotive industry known to have exceptional interest? 3. The first road vehicles were steam-powered. Is the automotive industry rooted in the steam-powered engine? 4. What was the outstanding contribution to technological advance in the automotive industry?



MINI TEST 1 (Unit 1)

Translate the word combinations given below.

1. automotive industry; 2. motor vehicle; 3. passenger automobile; 4. commercial vehicle; 5. mass production technique; 6. steam-powered engine; 7. technological advance; 8. to develop confidence; 9. to become an objective; 10. state of the economy.

Find definitions to given words.

1. Vehicle. 2. Interchangeability. 3. Engine. 4. Exporter. 5. Body.

A. The main part of the vehicle where the seats are. B. Machine that generates mechanical power. C. Trader who exports goods. D. Any wheeled conveyance for transporting of goods or passengers. E. Ability to be changed.

Fill in the gaps in the sentences.

1. Mass production implies …. . 2. The automotive industry has become a … in the industrialized countries economy. 3. The automobile originated in … . 4. The history of the automotive industry has an exceptional interest because of its effects on the … . 5. …. though important to the industry are secondary.

A. Commercial vehicles. B. 20th century history. C. Europe. D. Vital element. E. Mass consumption.

 

Match the synonyms.

1. Producer. 2. Progress. 3. Originate. 4. Precision. 5. Makes.

A. Advance. B. To be rooted. C. Accuracy. D. Models. E. Manufacturer.

 

Match the antonyms.

1. Include. 2. Principal. 3. Major. 4. Sell. 5. Better.

A. Worse. B. Buy. C. Minor. D. Secondary. E. Exclude.


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