ВИДО-ВРЕМЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА 7 часть
9. The company have decided to cancel a failing research project to avoid (wasting, being wasted) money. 10. Would you mind (meeting, being met) them at the station?
6.1.9. Составьте предложения с формой Gerund, используя данные пары словосочетаний.
1. prevent from – give up her studies
2. think of – move to the capital city
3. succeed in – go through the exams
4. agree to – come with us
5. do without – take rush decisions
6. can’ t help – laugh at this joke
7. thank for – give a lift
8. be surprised at – see you here
9. get used to – get up early
10. have difficulty in – bring up children
6.1.10. Переделайте предложения по образцу, используя данную конструкцию с герундием.
Worth doing smth.
1.It’s an interesting excursion. (to go) 2. They are rare exhibits. (to display) 3. The article is informative. (to translate) 4. The job is challenging. (to apply for) 5. The fact is interesting. (to mention) 6. It is an interesting book. (to read)
Can’t help doing smth
1.The episode is funny. (to laugh) 2.The melodrama was very touching. (to cry) 3. He was being rude. (to say) 4. He was proud of his paintings. (to show) 5. The girl was curious. ( to open a present) 6. The story was exciting. (to tell)
Need doing smth
1. The battery is flat. (to replace) 2. The house is in a bad condition. (to repair) 3. The dishes are dirty. (to wash up) 4. The device is out-dated. (to upgrade) 5. The garden is dry. (to water) 6. Your report is not good/ (to correct)
It’s no good
1.He won’t come. ( to wait for) 2. He is not enough qualified. (to offer the job) 3.The house is badly damaged. (to repair) 4. There are no tickets left. (to queue) 5.The computer is old. ( to fix) 6. It is a slow train. (to take)
Be used to doing smth
1.He usually studies until 1 a.m. (to sit up late) 2. I leave for the institute at 7.30. (to get up early) 3. Most students can’t do without the Internet. (to use) 4. I share a room with my brother. (to live together) 5. The machinery is very noisy. The workers (to speak loudly) 6. He is a hardwoking.man. (to work much)
6.1.11. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя форму Gerund.
1. Мы предлагаем внести изменения в этот проект.2. Пирог был такой вкусный, что невозможно было не съесть еще кусок. 3. Мы не могли не спросить Петра о его новой работе. 4. Я уверен, что у тебя получится найти новую работу. 5. Постарайся отговорить его от поездки в горы в это время года. 6.Что ты думаешь о том, чтобы на этот раз провести отпуск в России? 7. Он уверен в том, что станет актером. 8. Многие не могут обходиться без Интернета.. 9. Тебе придется привыкнуть делать все самому. 10. Те¸ кто хорошо подготовлены, не боятся сдавать экзамен. 11. Бесполезно просить их остаться. Они должны ехать. 12. Одежду надо почистить. 13. Этот проект стоит обсудить. 14. Спасибо за то, что встретили нас в аэропорту. 15. Нам интересно работать с вами. 16. Некоторые дети боятся оставаться одни. 17. Англичане любят работать в саду. 18. Нам приятно с вами сотрудничать. 19. Мы с нетерпением ждем вашего ответа. 20. Я горжусь тем, что работаю в этой компании.
6.1.12. Вставьте недостающие части речи.
6.1.13. Отработайте произношение данных слов, уточнив их транскрипцию по словарю.
6.1.14..Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и выражения:
Inseparably tied to, completely without, identify their country with, furthermore, being bought on a mortgage, detached house, garden at the back, from the rest of the world, not by chance, cause problems, personal anxious relation, make a special effort, items tucked away into corners, entrance hall, fairly close to reality, full of conveniences, a good reason, give out that much heat, indispensable part, a source of national pride, faithful attachment, wealthy landowners, enjoy the pleasantness.
6.1.15. Прочитайте текст. Дайте ответ на вопрос : “What does the typical English house look like?”
HOME, SWEET HOME
For the English, the concept of the family is inseparably tied to the concept of the 'house' and 'home'. It is interesting that the English rarely use the word 'motherland'. It does, ofcourse, exist in English, but it is fairly artificial and is mainly used when talking about other nations. They are more likely to use 'house or 'home', a concept which is more important to them than any other. Their patriotism is not noisy, but hidden, completely without pathos. They never identify their country with the government or the state. These concepts are changeable and fluid, and the English like nothing more than stability. Therefore their land and their home are more important than everything else. "Home, sweet home" the English often say and write "There is no place like home" on their towels and vignettes.
Furthermore, their home must be a real home, not a flat. An Englishman's home may be small, or being bought on a mortgage, but it is his. Even if it is not a detached house, it must have its own entrance and, of course, a little garden at the back which is fenced off from the rest of the world. This is the usual town version. Out in the country, the plot of land can be turned into a real garden.
It is not by chance that; a lot of houses in England have names. This causes problems for guests and postal workers, but demonstrates the very personal, anxious relation of the English to their homes. There are all sorts of names, some of them touching, some of them strange, some of them very old. For example, 'Under the Oaks' (although there was not a single oak to be seen for miles around), or 'Willows’ (a name which was obviously chosen a long time ago), or 'Cats house' (with a big cat sitting right in the front window), or 'Smugglers Hideout' (over the door of a cosy little cottage).
The English do not often invite you into their homes, preferring to meet in cafes or .restaurants. But if they do invite you, prepare yourself for the unexpected. Nobody will make a special effort to tidy up before you arrive, there will be no ‘Potemkin villages’ no items tucked away into corners. The house will look just like it does every day. The entrance hall will be cluttered with all sorts of useful bits and pieces, from old newspapers to dirty Wellington boots. There may be dirty cups next to the sofa in the living room, and an old sweater in the corner. The kitchen table may be covered with magazines and boxes from which they pull food. This is, of course, a ‘collective portrait’, but one that is on the whole fairly close to reality.
The English home is not as full of conveniences as an American home, but what distinguishes it from the rest is its cosiness. And here you understand that there is a good reason why the word 'comfort' spread into other languages from English. The layout, which includes any number of items, tables padded stools, sofas and armchairs has been arranged around the fireplace which does not give out that much heat but does create an unforgettable atmosphere of conciliation and calm. The logs cheerfully crackle in the fire and you sit, whisky in hand: what else could you ask for in life? In those houses where it is not possible to have a real fire, they like to install an electric fireplace.
The front garden is an indispensable part of each house and the owner will spend much effort and attention on making it look pretty. Wonderful flowers and bushes, some of them exotic, are carefully planted around the house. Furthermore, if the house itself is usually in a state of disorder, that is unthinkable for the garden.
The English lawn is also a source of national pride and is a reflection of a number of aspects of the English character. First, the faithful attachment to traditions, as in the famous joke when an Englishman is asked:
"How did you manage to achieve such a perfect lawn?"
"Oh, it's very simple," he replies, "You just have to mow and water it every day for 400 years."
The English lawns demonstrate the freedom-loving tendencies, since you may walk freely over such lawns and the grass does not get trampled down.
There is also an old English tradition of visiting private homes which dates back to the distant past. Wealthy landowners opened their homes to visitors many centuries ago so that the latter could enjoy the pleasantness of their dwelling. Wandering around an English home which has been opened to the public, you are surprised that somebody is still living in it. This is why such houses do not just feel like a museum, they are alive and real.
6.1.16. Прочитайте текст. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста. Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.
1. Speaking about their country the English often use the word “motherland”.
2. The English identify their country with the Queen, the Parliament and the Government.
3. They like stability most of all.
4. Home is the most important thing for an Englishman.
5. You can see English proverbs about home not only in books and dictionaries.
6. Garden is part of the English home.
7. All English houses bear women’s names.
8. The names of English houses does not necessarily relate to the present reality.
9. The English are fond of inviting friends to their homes.
10. The English keep their homes in perfect order.
11. Their homes are full of modern domestic appliances.
12. They are very much like American homes.
13. An English home looks like an average European home.
14. Many old English stately houses have been turned into museums.
15. The Englishman pays more attention to his garden than to his home.
16. The English use their fireplace only to heat the rooms.
17. The English are attached to their traditions.
18. The word “comfort” came into Russian from English.
6.1.17. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. Why do the English rarely use the word ‘motherland’?
2. Are the English a patriotic nation?
3. Do they identify their government with their country?
4. What can you say about English patriotism?
5. What English proverbs and sayings about home do you remember?
6. Explain the meaning of the proverb “Men make houses, women make homes”.
7. Where do the English often write proverbs about home?
8. Can a flat be a real home for an Englishman?
9. Can you buy a house without having enough money to do it?
10. Why do the English like to give their houses proper names?
11. Do the names help to find a house?
12. Where do the names for English houses come from?
13. Is the name always connected with the individual features of the house?
14. Is it a popular English custom to invite guests home?
15. If being invited what can you expect to see there?
16. Do the English do their home up when they are expecting guests?
17. What does a typical English home look like?
18. Compare an English home to an American or a Russian one.
19. Why are the English so attached to the fireplace?
20. Make a brief ‘sketch’ of an Englishman sitting in front of the fire.
21. There is one special old English tradition. What is it?
22. Why don’t some English houses open to the public look like museums?
6.1.18. Переведите данные словосочетания на английский язык.
Богатые землевладельцы, отдельный дом, купить дом на условиях ипотеки, родина/отечество, участок земли, важнее всего, никто не будет особенно стараться; вещи, рассованные по углам; резиновые сапоги, то да се, коробки из-под продуктов, что еще нужно в жизни!, собирательный образ, восходит к далекому прошлому, с одной стороны, отгорожен от всего остального мира, все возможные названия, выглядеть, отдельный вход, наслаждаться прелестями, источник национальной гордости, незабываемая атмосфера, сад за домом; личное, заботливое отношение, веская причина.
6.1.19. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения, используя данные слова и словосочетания.
1. Этого выражения нет (не существует) в современном русском языке.
2. Понятие «дом» остается неизменным в английской культуре на протяжение веков.
3. В 60х годах прошлого века многие семьи в России получили участок земли.
4. Здесь живут две семьи. У каждой – свой отдельный вход в дом.
5. Эту маленькую комнату можно превратить в зимний сад.
6. Мы выбрали этот дом не случайно – он очень удобно расположен.
7. Что вызвало ваше негативное отношение к этому проекту?
8. Их комната очень удобна, потому что они правильно расставили мебель.
9. Если нет возможности иметь настоящий камин, можно установить электрический - его иногда трудно отличить от настоящего.
10.Нельзя достигнуть цели, не предприняв усилий.
11.В романе отражены все аспекты современной жизни.
12.Каково ваше личное отношение к этой проблеме?
13.Дом был полностью разрушен.
14.Расположение офисов довольно удобное.
15.Многие дома находятся в очень плохом состоянии.
16.Покупка жилья по ипотеке – составная часть жилищной политики в нашей стране.
6.1.20. Сократите текст, опустив несущественные детали.
6.1.21. Составьте план, передайте содержание текста по ключевым словам и объясните Ваше отношение к данной информации.
Concept, motherland, a detached house, garden, personal relation, invite, make special effort, conveniences, fireplace, the English lawn, landlords, pleasantness
6.1.22. Расскажите об отношении людей к своему жилью, приусадебному участку, приёму гостей в нашей стране.
6.2.1. Отработайте произношение данных слов, уточнив их транскрипцию по словарю.
6.2.2. Прочитайте текст и дайте ответ на вопрос; What kind of a flat does Vivien live in?
Vivien.I live in Budapest, in a flat in the center of town, on the third storey, the third floor, of a building with acourtyardand a big stairwell. There's no lift; unfortunately, which means I have to staggerup three flights ofstairs everyday, a couple of times a day. It's quite a small flat, I don't remember how many square metres it is, but it's pretty small: There's a living room, where we sleep, which I share with my flatmate. It's her flat, so that's quite good. I pay her rent, but fortunately I don't have to pay any of the electricityor gas bills,although I pay the phone bill because I’m always calling England, which makes it very expensive. So, in the main room there's a huge old brick stove, which keeps us good and warm and is very efficient, and as the flat's quite small it's not expensive to keep it well-heated. This makes a big change from some other flats I've lived in, like in London where I was freezing cold in the winter with no fires or heating of any sort. Then there is a bed and also a sofa-bed, where I sleep, which you can pull out and change from a sofa into a double-size bed. There're two hugecupboards. One of them is quite modern, and the other one is an old-style white cupboard with a large oval mirror built into it. We also have a desk, where I work. I have a typewriter on it which I borrowed from a friend who I used to work with at the newspaper offices, so now I can work from home. Then we’ve got about four blocks of shelves, which are mainly full of language books and books on Hungarian literature. We've got a telephone as well, which is something, I think, that people in England take forgranted,but I realize that in Hungary it can be quite difficult to get one as you can be on the waiting list for a long time, so we're lucky to have that.
The other room used to be a kitchen, but my flatmate's dad has converted it into a kind of study room. There's a big table in there where we usually eat breakfast and supper. There's quite a strange setupin the room really, because it has tiles on the floor, so it looks like a cross between a bathroom,a kitchenand a living room, It's also got a lot of shelves with books on them, and some plants which I brought from the last flat that I lived in. Then we've got a kind of a kitchen, well, it's a little cupboard really, which has a stove, a washing up basin, a couple of little cupboards and some shelves.
Then we've got a bathroom, which is also quite small, with rather luridpink tilesin it, which has a bath, a toilet and a washbasin, and also a washing machine, which leapsaround all over the bathroom and gets very violent, so we have to watch it when it's on. We also have a vacuum cleaner, (which we usually call a "hoover" in England), and there is a large metal stepladder (but I'm not sure why it is there), and there are a lot of cupboards as well, full of shoes and old newspapers and saucepans and ail kinds of rubbish.
As our flat is so small, it's cheap and easy to keep warm, and also quite easy to keep dean. However, on the other hand, there's not much space. However, as we’re living in the middle of the city, so it's very quick to get to from anywhere, and is near to different metro lines, so you can get to any part of the city.
My ideal flat or house would be, I suppose, somewhere not quite so central, but then I would like, to have a car so that I could get in and out of town quickly. I would like to have a house, ideally with a garden so that I could have pets, maybe dogs and cats, and do gardening and grow plants, I'd like quite a few rooms in the house so that I could use one room as an office, which would be nice as I find it difficult to work in the same room I normally live in, because there's always, a temptation to switch on the TV or to go and make a cup of coffee. I'd also like .to have a nice view, maybe a view of the river. I’ve always been used to living by water, and in Hungary I really miss being near the sea. I don't know what it is, but there's something I like about living on an island. It's just so nice to be able to go out to the seaside and get some fresh air.
6.2.3. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы.
1. Where does Vivien live?
2. Does she own this flat or not?
3. Who does she share the flat with?
4. Does Vivien pay all the bills?
5. Describe their living room.
6. What does their study look like?
7. What does their kitchen look like?
8. What is Vivien’s idea of her future house?
6.2.4. В каждом абзаце найдите предложение, выражающее его основную мысль.
6.2.5. Озаглавьте каждый абзац.
6.2.6. Составьте план текста на русском языке.
6.2.7. Переведите составленный план на английский язык.
6.2.8. Напишите краткое изложение текста на русском языке.
6.3.1. Прочитайте данный текст и определите его основную идею
This five-bedroom, 2,500 sq ft home is designed by a husband-and-wife team Cathrenne Burd and Buddy Harward, both 41.They devised the low-energy Brook Coomes House, Ealing, west London, which in 2002 won the Riba Manser Medal, and are designing 600 sustainable homes in the Rochester Riverside scheme at Thames Gateway.
Their house has three key principles: its construction must be incorporate local materials from sustainable sources and low-energy build methods; it must consume little or no energy, so conserve or generate it on site; and the flexible design must have non-load bearing internal walls, so that it can be adapted to the changing needs of the occupants.
“The most important aspect of ensuring any low-energy home works properly is educating the user,’ says Haward. There have been many cases of low-energy public buildings developing problems because people didn’t know how to use the technology.”
The open-plan layout of the Sheppard Robson three-bedroom house, designed by Dan Burr, surrounds an open courtyard that effectively splits the building into two zones and introduces light and ventilation. A smaller street-facing block has a guest flat or house office on the ground floor, with the master bedroom suite above it.
This wing is connected to the main section by a hall and stairs – or “service spine” – running front to back. This has storage, a utility room for drying clothes (rather than a mechanical dryer), a biomass boiler for top-up space heating and hot water in winter, a grey-water recycling tank and a mechanical ventilation heat-recovery system. Only 18% of the building is glazed – 10% less than a conventional home – but the windows there are triple-glazed and gas-filled, with external shutters.
“One of the starting premises of the design is to manage the daylight coming in,” Burr says. Two wedge-shaped, monopitch roofs bring in “north light” – daylight, not direct sunlight. The inverted plan, with family living space on the top floor and the children’s bedrooms below – benefits from this. Photovoltaic panels power lights, solar panels provide hot water. Both are angled 40 degrees south for best performance.
A computer in the kitchen monitors energy use; adjustments can be made as it fluctuates.
Rooftop wind-catchers have vents on four sides to let heat out and fresh air in. There is a subterranean rainwater recycling tank.
One of the key elements of Burd Haward’s five-bedroom house is its large, southfacing glazed courtyard, which most rooms overlook. Externally, it is double-glazed; internally, full-height, triple-glazed sliding doors lead onto it from each floor. “So, in effect, the whole building, from inside to out, is five times glazed,” Haward says. The courtyard makes the greatest use of energy from the sun in winter and cuts heat loss from windows. Climbing plants on the walls and roof (“seasonal shading”) limit solar gain in summer and utilize it in winter. The sliding doors can be opened to let air circulate – vents open and close at the top, allowing hot air out.
A ventilation heat recovery system recycles up to 70% of energy that would otherwise be lost. The house has low-energy appliances, space for bicycle storage, and, in the garage, a charging point for an electric car. Rain and grey water are harvested and stored separately underground, saving 60% of average water consumption.
6.3.2. Письменно переведите текст, используя словарь.
6.3.3. Выберите заголовок, наиболее соответствующий содержанию текста.
1. Two Modern Houses
2. Houses of My Dream
3. New Technology In Buildings
4. Designing Modern Houses
6.3.4. Ролевая игра.
Ситуация: Вы купили новый современный дом и пригласили своих друзей. Вы показываете дом и участок вокруг дома своим друзьям, Друзья задают Вам вопросы по поводу дома и благоустройства прилегающей территории.
* Грамматика: The Infinitive
* Текст: Some Facts About The United Kingdom
7.1.1. Прочитайте данные предложения, в которых инфинитив выполняет функцию подлежащего. Переведите предложения на русский язык
1. To wait for them any longer is useless.
2. To say this is to say nothing.
3. Not to be able to use a computer nowadays is practically to be illiterate.
4. To pass this exam was rather difficult.
5. To walk such a long distance will take much time.
6. To apply for this job will be useless.
7.1.2. Прочитайте данные предложения, в которых инфинитив выполняет функцию именной части составного именного сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Her desire is to go to Italy in autumn.
2. Your duty is to keep all these things in order.
3/ Manager’s responsibility is to control the activity of people.
4. Her advice was to take medicine.
5. His main idea was to carry out an experiment.
6. They have no desire to show me round the town.
7.1.3. Прочитайте данные предложения, в которых инфинитив является частью составного глагольного сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. You can buy a good pair of shoes in this department store.
2. He may ask me this question.
3. They must do this work at once.
4. She decided not to apply for this job.
5. He hoped to be responsible for the project.
6. The English like to arrange armchairs around the fire.
7.1.4. Прочитайте данные предложения, в которых инфинитив выполняет функцию прямого дополнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. They told her not to go out at night in the city.
2. I ask you to water the flowers every day.
3. My friend advised me not to plant the roses so early.
4. Her dad told her to see the guests off.
5. I ask you to be careful while crossing the street.
6. The professor advised her to refer to this book.
7.1.5. Прочитайте данные предложения, в которых инфинитив выполняет функцию определения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. You have no reason to put off your business trip.
2. The businessmen have no intention to sign the contract.
3. .My cousin has got a desire to buy a modern cottage.
4. She has bought a pair of shoes to match her cloths.
5. He is the very man to do it.
6. He is always the first to pass the exams.