ВИДО-ВРЕМЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА 2 часть
When traveling and when you want to see the world you can manage a lot better if you understand the signs around you, and if when you meet people and want to ask questions, if you can speak to them in their own language, they’re often a lot more friendly and helpful than if your first question is: “Do you speak English?” If you are working in the field where interesting things are happening abroad, like science, business or medicine, and you want to be up-to-date with progress in that field, you can’t always wait for the latest reports to be translated into your own language, as this often doesn’t happen for some time, especially if you speak a language like Hungarian, where there are only a limited number of translators, who are often expensive, and so only selected information is translated.
I think it’s very valuable and helpful in learning languages if you start from an early age. Many people can learn the best up to about the age of 20, as they have a lot of time for it which later, with family and work, often isn’t possible. Somebody thinks that learning a language after the age of twenty or so needs a lot of enthusiasm, and more time, as the learning process is generally a little slower for older people than for people with young impressionable minds. After twenty, it’s very difficult to learn more languages if you’ve not already learnt one before, as it’s a special way of learning. It’s not like learning maths or science – instead it involves a different way of thinking. You have to learn to think in another language. This is like music, maybe. You have to learn how to learn another language as well as learning the grammar and vocabulary involved, so if you’ve learnt one extra language already, it’s easier to learn more. I think that for many multilingual people, the second language is a lot easier than the first.
I think that the learning process really starts to work when you feel that it’s important and that you have a reason to learn it – if you can find the language useful, not just part of school curriculum. For example, if you learn English and you are confronted with it on the radio, on TV, and if you listen to music with English words.
1.3.2. Письменно переведите текст со словарём.
1.3.3. Выберите заголовок, наиболее соответствующий содержанию текста:
1. Learning Foreign Language
2. The Best Way To Learn A Foreign Language
3. Make Your Learning Easy
4. Don’t Start Learning If You Are Over 20
1.3.4. Ролевая игра. В вашу студенческую группу пришёл новый студент. На уроке английского языка вы выясняете, что он/она свободно говорит на трёх иностранных языках. Выясните, как ему/ей удалось научиться хорошо говорить на трёх иностранных языках.
· Грамматика: видо-временные формы глагола в группе Perfect и Perfect Continuous
· Текст Life At College And University
2.1.1. Поставьте глагол, данный в скобках, в видо-временную форму Present Perfect:
1. I just (to speak) to him. 2. She never (to be) in Paris. 3. I (to be) very busy lately. 4. They (not to come) yet. 5. Sue already (to buy) a new house. 6. Mike (to meet) her today. 7. We (to watch) interesting programs on TV this week. 8. I (to see) this film three times. 9. He (to live) in this house for many years. 10.She (to be married) for three years.
2.1.2. Прочитайте предложения в видо-временной форме Present Perfect, задайте общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:
1. They have already bought a new house. 2. My parents have already returned from Spain. 3. He has already heard this news. 4. She has already read this story. 5. They have already paid all the bills. 6. They have just arrived from London. 7. We have had three lectures today. 8. You have studied some economic laws this month. 9. I have read this novel twice. 10. He has called you three times.
2.1.3. Прочитайте предложения в видо-временной форме Past Perfect, задайте общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:
1. My friend had left when we arrived. 2. We had left an hour before he returned. 3. They had done that work by last Friday. 4. Before we went sightseeing we had studied the map. 5 They had sold all the tickets by the time I called. 6. We had studied the train schedule before we went to the booking office. 7. By the time he came we had cleaned the house. 8. They had paid all the bills before they left for home. 9. They had visited their granny before they left Moscow. 10. Our manager had signed the contract when I came to the office.
2.1.4. Прочитайте предложения в видо-временной форме Future Perfect, задайте общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:
1. My father will have ordered the tickets by that date. 2. She will have done this work by Friday. 3. He will have booked the tickets by tomorrow. 4. They will have sold their car by next month. 5. Tom will have written his report by that time. 6. Mother will have prepared the dinner when we come. 7. I will have called him by that time. 8. The clerk will have printed the papers by next Wednesday. 9. He will have signed the papers by noon. 10. Jane will have answered the letter by that time.
2.1.5. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Студенты уже сдали экзамены. 2. Солнце уже взошло. 3. Дети ещё не встали. 4. Я посмотрел интересную передачу по телевизору сегодня. 5. Фильм уже закончился, когда я пришла домой. 6. Они уже построили новый дом, когда их сын женился. 7. Снегопад закончился, когда наступило утро. 8. Я закончу писать доклад к понедельнику. 9. Студенты сдадут экзамены к февралю. 10. Они вернутся домой к девяти часам.
2.1.6. Прочитайте предложения в видо-временной форме Present Perfect Continuous, задайте cпециальный вопрос, начиная со слов данных в скобках:
1. He has been working at this problem since August. (Since when …?) 2. They have been studying the contract for two hours. ( How long …?) 3.The managers have been discussing this matter for half an hour. (How long …?) 4. They have been dancing since nine. (Since when …?) 5. She has been speaking on the phone for half an hour. (How long …?) 6. The children have been watching TV since morning. (How log ...?) 7. He has been reading since three o’clock. (Since when …?) 8. They have been doing this work for two hours. (How long …?) 9. You have been playing computer games since nine. (Since when …?) 10. My boss has been writing a report for two hours. (How long …?)
2.1.7. Прочитайте предложения в видо-временной форме Past Perfect Continuous, задайте cпециальный вопрос, начиная со слов данных в скобках:
1. They had been doing this work for several days when they got this offer. (How long …?) 2. The clerks had been preparing the documents for an hour when their boss came. (How long …?) 3. We had been skiing for half an hour when the snowfall began. (How long …?) 4. I had been cooking for an hour when my friends came. (How long …?) 5. The children had been watching TV for two hours when mother switched it off.. (How long …?) 6. They had been discussing the contract since 10 a.m.when they came to agreement at last. (Since when …?) 7. He had been having a shower for ten minutes when this TV program began. (How long …?) 8. The car had been running well since August when the accident happened. (Since when …?) 9. By the time I finished my shopping I had been walking for three hours. (How long …?) 10. He had been playing tennis for some years before he could play well. (How long …?)
2.1.8. Прочитайте предложения, поставив глагол в видо-временную форму Future Perfect Continuous:
1. I (to write) this article for a week by next Monday. 2. He (to watch) this program for twenty minutes when his friend comes. 3. She (to have a shower) for ten minutes when the film begins. 4. He (to wash) his car for some minutes when the mechanic comes. 5. The managers (to discuss) this matter for half an hour when the boss comes. 6. They (to have talks) for two hours when they come to an agreement. 7. The children (to watch) TV for an hour when mother comes. 8. When I return the children (to play) computer games for forty minutes. 9. When we come to the conclusion I (to discuss) this problem with my friends for some time. 10. He (to work) at this problem for a month when he makes an experiment.
2.1.9. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Он с утра читает. 2. Мои родители путешествуют по Америке с начала сентября. 3. Мы изучаем экономику в течение трёх лет. 4. Я уже полтора часа смотрю эту передачу. 5. Управляющие уже два часа обсуждали контракт, когда пришёл генеральный директор. 6. Мы уже час катались на лыжах, когда пошёл сильный снег. 7. Дождь шёл минут сорок, когда мы решили поехать на станцию на такси. 8. Дети играли уже часа два, когда наступило время обеда. 9. Мы будем вести переговоры два часа, когда приедет наш главный экономист. 10. Они будут обедать в ресторане минут двадцать, когда ты к ним присоединишься.
2.1.10. Вставьте недостающие части речи.
2.1.11.Отработайте произношение слов, уточнив транскрипцию по
2.1.12. Переведите данные словосочетания на русский язык.
Three terms, to be divided, from the beginning, the best-known universities, at least, to be necessary, to be enough, citizen, local authority, to differ from each other, methods of instruction, a university graduate, important feature, research, date from, so-called, to include, to set up, among them, to offer full-time courses, to specialize in, particular, cooking, hairdressing, part –time courses, strong ties, own, to attend lectures, to keep in touch, formal qualification, to enter ordinary university, to train in law, way of life.
2.1.13. Прочитайте текст и назовите типы высших учебных заведений, упомянутых в тексте:
LIFE AT COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY
The academic year in Britain’s universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education is divided into three terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March, and from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July.
There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham.
Good A-level results in at least two subjects are necessary to get a place at the university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with it a grant from their local education authority.
English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction, way of student life.
After three years of study a university graduate will leave with a Degree of a Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take the Master’s Degree and then the Doctor’s Degree. Research is an important feature of university work.
The two intellectual eyes of Great Britain – Oxford and Cambridge Universities – date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
In the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Birmingham. During the late sixtieth and early seventieth some 20 new universities were set up. Sometimes they are called “concrete and glass’ universities. Among them are the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others.
During these years the Government set up thirty Polytechnics. The Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some of them offer full-time and sandwich courses. Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some particular subject.
Some of those who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go to a further education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry.
There is an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It is intended for people who study in their own free time and who “attend” lectures by watching television and listening to the radio. They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The Open University students have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities.
Some 80,000 overseas students study at British universities or further education colleges or train in nursing, law, banking or in industry.
2.1.14. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста, подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста:
1. The students of Polytechnics can get only the first degree.
2. The Redbrick universities were set up in seventieth last century.
3. There are three terms in the academic year in British universities.
4. The students of the Open University get first and higher degrees.
5. One can enter the university if he or she has good result in one subject.
6. College of Education provides four-year courses.
7. The students of the Open University should attend lectures during the academic year.
8. All the universities in Britain have the same traditions and general organization.
9. The students of Polytechnics may work and study at the same time.
10.The universities of Sussex, York and East Anglia are sometimes called “concrete and glass” universities.
11.Children at the age of fourteen may go to a further education college.
12.There are no overseas students at British universities.
2.1.15. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. How many terms are there in the academic year in Britain?
2. How many universities are there in Great Britain?
3. What is necessary to get a place at the university?
4. Who gets grants at the universities?
5. How do the universities differ?
6. What degree does the university graduate get after three years of studying?
7. How many years does it take to get the Master’s Degree and the Doctor’s Degree?
8. What is an important feature of university work?
9. How old is Oxford University?
10.How old is Cambridge University?
11.How old are the Scottish Universities?
12.When were the Redbrick universities founded?
13.When were the “concrete and glass” universities set up?
14.How many Polytechnics did the Government set up?
15.What degrees do Polytechnics offer?
16.What courses do they offer?
17.What courses do the Colleges of Education provide?
18.What course can the young people follow after leaving school at the age of 16?
19.What is the method of instruction at the Open University?
20.How do the students of the Open University keep in touch with their tutors?
21.Do the Open University students have formal qualification?
22.How many overseas students are there in Britain?
2.1.16. Прочитайте текст. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:
Поддерживать связь, быть недостаточным, выпускник университета, местные власти, так называемый, присуждённая квалификация, гражданин, поступить в обычный университет, два семестра, среди них, отличаться друг от друга, самые известные университеты, включать в себя, датироваться, быть необходимым, особенный, парикмахерское дело, предлагать очное обучение, с начала двадцатого века, учреждать, прочные связи, методы обучения, образ жизни, по крайней мере, важная черта, исследование, кулинария, собственный, торговля, получать подготовку в юриспруденции, посещать лекции, специализироваться в, быть разделенным на.
2.1.17. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения, используя данные слова и словосочетания:
1. Они поддерживают связь со своими руководителями по телефону.
2. Мой друг получил стипендию от правительства.
3. Мы прошли курс экономики в прошлом году.
4. Я бы хотел получить подготовку по банковскому делу.
5. Этот университет готовит экономистов и бухгалтеров.
6. Эти народы очень отличаются своими традициями.
7. Его дядя получил докторскую степень в прошлом году.
8. Мои братья очень отличаются друг от друга.
9. Чтобы получить место в университете вам необходимо пройти собеседование.
10.Московский государственный университет был основан в 1755 году.
11.Эти студенты специализировались в юриспруденции.
12.Наш преподаватель использует различные современные методы обучения.
13.Я хочу продолжить обучение и получить степень магистра.
14.Необходимо получить хорошие результаты по крайней мере по двум предметам, чтобы поступить в университет.
15.Он студент очного отделения нашего университета, а её брат учится и работает.
16.Эти университеты очень отличаются методом обучения.
2.1.18. Прочитайте текст и найдите предложение, сказуемое которого выражено видо-временной формой Future Indefinite.
2.1.19. Сократите текст, опустив несущественные детали.
2.1.20. Составьте план и передайте содержание текста по ключевым словам:
Academic year, good results, interview, to leave with a degree, to be founded, Polytechnics, to offer, a further education college, to be intended for, to attend, overseas.
2.1.21. Расскажите, какие возможности продолжить образование после получения обязательного общего среднего образования существуют в нашей стране.
2.2.1. Отработайте произношение слов, уточнив транскрипцию по словарю:
2.2.2. Прочитайте текст и назовите, какие возможности получить работу есть у британской молодёжи:
SIXTEEN AND AFTER
Sixteen is a crucial age. This is when young men and women have to decide whether to stay at school, to go on to a college, to look for a job, or to start a Young Training Program. All have to think about gaining employment in a job market which demands increasingly skilled workers. Most study for “A” and “AS” level qualifications. These are two-year courses in single subject. Students will usually take two or three subjects which may be combined with one or two “AS” courses. These are offered by schools and colleges.
The government is keen that more young people should stay on at school or college for the period between 16 and 18, not just to do academic work but also to gain practical skills which will prepare them for employment. Colleges of further education offer a number of more vocationally orientated courses for 16 to 18 year-olds. Vocational qualifications prepare young people for work in various occupations such as business, engineering, administration, catering and tourism. Vocational qualifications are reformed into National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) and General NVQs (GNVQs). NVQs are designed for people at work, although they can be taken at colleges and at some schools. GNVQ’s introduced from September 1992 are designed primarily for young people in full-time education in schools and colleges. They are a vocational alternative to “A” levels and offer a broad-based vocational education for a range or related jobs within an occupational area such as business, art and design or health and social care. They also provide a ladder towards higher levels of study, including higher education, and to employment.
After their period in further education young people have the opportunity to go on to higher education in a university, polytechnic or college, provided they have good “A” level exam results or good passes in vocational qualifications.
Unless they are fortunate enough to have a job to go to, the first stop for young people entering the job market at 16 is their local Job centre or careers office. Some school careers advisers teach such skills as filling out a curriculum vita or writing letters applying for jobs but for many young people this is uncharted territory. Youth workers in the Youth Service organizations also give advice and counseling.
A large number of 16 and 17 year-olds enter Youth Training programs established by the Government as a means of helping young people to gain vocational experience through training which can lead to National Vocational Qualifications at level II and above. The Government guarantees a place on the scheme to everybody under 18 who is not in full-time education or in work. Youth training programs, which include the Youth Credits initiative cover a wide range of vocational skills from hairdressing to engineering and a large percentage of trainees are able to find work once they have completed a Youth Training course.
Another option is to become self-employed. This requires a product or service which has a clear market as well as good advice and motivation. It isn’t easy as is testified by the high proportion of business start-ups which fail during their first year. However, a number of organizations offer grants as well as start-up advice. For example the Prince’s Youth Business Trust (assister of The Prince’s Trust organization) helps unemployed and disadvantaged 18 to 29 year-olds set up viable businesses and provides grants and loans to both individuals and groups. The Shell-sponsored Livewire scheme helps young people between 16 and 25 to start business enterprise with advice and cash awards. Free advice is offered by the network of Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs), co-ordinated through the Department of Trade and Industry and run by professional advisers and business people. Also the Business Enterprise Program provides training in skills needed to run small business.
2.2.3. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Why is sixteen a crucial age?
2. Where one can study to gain “A” or “AS” levels?
3. What courses are provided for young people in schools and colleges?
4. Where do young people get advice about entering the job market?
5. What do you know about Youth Training course?
6. Do most business start-ups succeed or fail?
7. What organizations help young people to start their own business?
8. What program provides training if a young man wants to start small business?
2.2.4. В каждом абзаце найдите предложение, выражающее его основную мысль. Озаглавьте каждый абзац.
2.2.5. Составьте план текста на русском языке.
2.2.6. Переведите составленный план на английский язык.
2.2,7. Напишите краткое изложение текста на английском языке.
2.2.8. Прочитайте диалог. Выучите его и разыграйте по ролям.
N: Hallo, Ann! How are you?
A: Fine! Thanks. And how are you getting on, Nancy?
N: O.K. Nice to meet you again.
A: Let me walk you about the university. I am good at showing people about.
N: Oh, it’s great! Please, do.
A: Our university was founded more than two hundred years ago. The old buildings are in the center of the city. And this one was built half a centutury ago.It looks really great, doesn’t it?
N: Yes, it does. And what are these two buildings made of concrete and glass?
A: They house many departments of our university. There is a gymnasium on your right. Sports competitions are held there.
N: What is this small building on our left?
A: It’s a church. It was founded in the 18th century. It is very beautiful, there are old icons inside.
N: Now I see the university is really a big place. One can get lost here. It impressed me greatly.
2.3.1. Прочитайте текст и определите его основную идею:
1. grammar school – классическая школа
2. “O” levels – экзамены «обычного» уровня
3. “A” levels – экзамены «продвинутого» уровня
My schooling really started at the age of five, and from the age of five until I was nine I went to a private school, which is quite unusual in England. Then my parents moved and I went to a village school in the countryside. This was a primary school which children usually go to from the ages of five to eleven. And then, at eleven we took an exam called the eleven plus. If we passed that we could go to grammar school, and if we failed we had to go to secondary school, which wasn’t usually of such good quality. I think the system is changed a bit now. Fortunately, I passed my eleven plus. There were all kinds of general knowledge questions and things that, basically, you can work out if you’ve got any common sense.