The Making of an Internet Enthusiast
3. Compare the forms of the infinitives, name them and explain the difference in their meaning:
1) She had nobody to help her.
2) You ought to have asked my opinion.
3) It's pleasant to be listening to you.
4) Children like to be told fairy tales.
5) The telegram was to have been sent two days earlier.
6) The company is said to have been working on its communication network for 3 months.
4. Choose the appropriate form of the infinitives while reading the passage.
In all cases diagnosis should (precede, be preceded) treatment. Human problems can never (separate, be separated) from the unique characteristics of the person involved. It is well to (remember, be remembered) that it is not just the event that elicits responses, but the person's subjective experience of the event. What the person brings to the situation in terms of his present interests and feelings, his past history, and general background can (determine, be determined) his willingness to (change, be changed), his ability to (change, be changed) and how he will (change, be changed).
The more we know about the person or persons to (help, be helped), the greater are the chances for success. It is wise to (remember, be remembered) that no major act of behavior is determined by a single variable. Human beings are far too complex to (change, be changed) through the manipulation of a single condition in the totality of their life spaces.
5. Combine the following sentences according to the model using the Complex Object Infinitive Construction.
- Thinking has many characteristics in common with all other responses of the organism. Most scientists suppose so.
- Most scientists suppose thinking to have many characteristics in common with other responses.
1) Emotions affect our behavior. Everyone may notice it.
2) Self-concept influences people's ability to solve problems effectively. We know it.
3) The rats were running in a maze. The experimenter was observing them.
4) The theory is correct. Scientists don't believe it and are planning a number of experiments.
5) The experiment lasted two hours. I didn't expect it.
6) You must give me all the information on this subject. I want it immediately.
7) Common sense experience tells us that intelligence and creative thinking are directly connected. But scientists don't suppose so.
8) The monkey took a stick and knocked the banana down. We saw it.
6. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Complex Subject Infinitive Construction.
- It’s known that the summit conference will be held in December.
- The summit conference is known to be held in December.
1) It’s expected that the problem of nuclear disarmament will be discussed at the summit.
2) It was said that the problem of nuclear disarmament had been discussed.
3) It’s expected that the two powers will sign the agreement.
4) It’s expected that the two powers have signed the agreement.
5) It’s reported that five countries will take part in the conference.
6) It’s reported that five countries have taken part in the conference.
7) It’s likely that he is reading for his report now.
8) It’s likely that he has read quite a lot for his report.
7. Choose the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets while reading the passage.
Even though investigators do not yet completely understand dreams, modern methods of study have answered a great many questions about them. Here are some questions that are known (to have been answered, to be answered).
Does everyone dream?Although many people do not recall dreams in the morning, "recallers" and "nonrecallers" appear (to dream, to have dreamt) equally often. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the differences in recall of dreams. One is that "nonrecallers" are believed (to be having, to have) an inherent difficulty in recalling dreams. (Lewis and others, 1966). The other hypothesis is that some people awaken more readily in the midst of a dream and thus report more dreams. In other words, the reason we remember dreaming is that we happened (to be waking up, to wake up) while we were dreaming. Regardless of the fate of these hypotheses everyone is certain (to have dreamt, to dream).
How long do dreams last?Occasionally dreams seem (to have been, to be) instantaneous. However, when subjects are asked (to be described, to describe) or pantomime a dream, the time it takes for them to do so is directly proportional to the length of time they were in a dream sleep before being awakened. (Dement and Wodperf, 1958).
Do people know when they are dreaming?One test is to have the subject hold a switch in one hand while sleeping, with instructions to close it while dreaming. (Salamy, 1970). Its findings show that subjects are likely (to train, to be trained) within one night to discriminate between periods of dreaming and non-dreaming.
FOCUS ON FUNCTIONS
Means of Communication
1. Look at the words given in the box.
Which of the verbs given below collocate with each means of communication?
• make • answer • address • communicate • write • send •receive • talk
Here are some ways of expressing preference:
2.What do people normally prefer to use these different means of communication for? What are your preferences? Discuss it with a partner.
- People normally prefer to write a letter or an email to apply for a job.
- Me too. But some people are not so keen on writing letters, so they would choose to send a fax.
• apply for a job
• book a table at a restaurant
• introduce somebody to somebody else (ex. newcomers to their colleagues)
• make an official complaint
• ask a favor
• invite someone to a party
• get somebody’s attention
• set up a meeting
It’s easy to say whether you prefer something or not but it’s harder to follow through and say why by giving a good reason. One way is to use a simple word like “because”.
- I like sending letters to friends because I find it very creative and relaxing.
Alternatively, you can turn the sentence round and start with the reasons. Example:
- I find sending letters to friends very creative and relaxing. That’s why I like it so much.
3.Which means of communication do you prefer in different situations of your life? Give reasons and discuss it with your partner.
Here are some other ways of expressing reasons or explaining how you feel. Don’t be afraid to express your feelings in this way – it will sound very natural and it also gives emphasis to the reason while allowing listeners time to digest your response.
4. Characterize each means of communication using the adjectives given in the table. Jot down one or two reasons, either positive or negative, so that you are ready to give an appropriate and reasoned answer to your partner.
Example: - What I like about sending faxes is that it is efficient. It means that you can send a copy of different documents very fast. One of the problems with faxes is that each time you have to get a confirmation that the documents are received.
Ask your partner what he thinks of different means of communication. As soon as you have an answer, ask for some reasons. Why? Why not? Make sure you get at least two reasons in each case. Did your partner use emphatic expressions?
1. What advice would you give to your friend who would like to improve his/her communication skills?
2. Watch the video and put down 10 general rules given by the speaker which help to improve communication skills. Here are some words that might be unfamiliar to you:
empathy - ýìïàòèÿ; ñî÷óâñòâèå; ñîïåðåæèâàíèå;
appraisal – îöåíêà;
denial – îòðèöàíèå;
sloppy – íåáðåæíûé;
dignity - ÷óâñòâî ñîáñòâåííîãî äîñòîèíñòâà.
3. Comment on each rule expressing your own point of view on their helpfulness.
4.Watch the video once again and insert the missing words into the following sentences.
1. In most jobs today we’re actually paid to communicate … … …
2. All these tips apply to …, … and … … or …
3. Communication is massively important for our … or … and our …
4. I work a lot with communication in stress …, … …, coaching, … … all over the world.
5. So really a big … for a person you’re with is …
6. A lot of people communicate, particularly, if it’s something … or some difficult situation, perhaps a speech or an appraisal of work, then often people … …, they … to … So they … … as well as they may.
7. Let us say, you give an appraisal. You can say: “John, you know, you’ve been more than … minutes late for the last … days.” And that’s quite different from … to an … or an … saying: “You’re lazy or sloppy.”
8. Emotional … is very important in the …
9. For example, I might feel happy ‘cause my need for … was met, or I might feel … or … because my need for … or dignity wasn’t met.
10. By asking for what you want you’re more likely to get it. Sounds like … … and a lot of people don’t do it.
11. We are all different: some people are …, some are …, some more …, some more ... orientated. So you might talk to these people quite differently.
5.Give the ten tips to your friend supporting them with your own arguments and examples. What tips would you add to these ones?
1.Comment on the following quotations:
1) Two monologues do not make a dialogue. - Jeff Daly.
2) When the eyes say one thing, and the tongue another, a practiced man relies on the language of the first. - Ralph Waldo Emerson.
3) Effective communication is 20% what you know and 80% how you feel about what you know. - Jim Rohn.
4) Big egos have little ears. - Robert Schuller.
5) Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius - and a lot of courage - to move in the opposite direction. - Albert Einstein.
6) If you don't ask, the answer is always no. - Tony Robbins.
7) Soon silence will have passed into legend. Man has turned his back on silence. Day after day he invents machines and devices that increase noise and distract humanity from the essence of life, contemplation, meditation. - Jean Arp.
8) The newest computer can merely compound, at speed, the oldest problem in the relations between human beings, and in the end the communicator will be confronted with the old problem, of what to say and how to say it. - Edward R. Murrow.
9) It seems a long time since the morning mail could be called correspondence. - Jacques Barzun.
10) The most basic and powerful way to connect to another person is to listen. Just listen. Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention…. A loving silence often has far more power to heal and to connect than the most well-intentioned words. - Rachel Naomi Remen.
2.Choose one topic to speak about:
a) what communication means;
b) the basic elements of the communication process;
c) the importance of communication for successful running of an organization;
d) barriers affecting flow of communication in an organization;
e) preventive measures that can be taken to ensure effective communication;
f) how to improve personal communication skills;
g) means of communication.
3. Get ready to deliver a presentation about well-known companies and their communication systems.
4. Prepare a presentation about modern communication technologies.
Write an essay of at least 500 words on the topic “What is gained from effective communication?”