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Communication in an Organization



Eumi 002315/10.11.2012

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УО «Белорусский государственный экономический университет»

Н.Н. ЧЕРНИК

 

КОММУНИКАЦИЯ

COMMUNICATION

Электронное учебно-методическое пособие

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)»

 

Минск 2012

Рецензенты: зав. кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ, канд. филол. наук, доцент Т.Ф. Солонович.

 

Рекомендовано кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ

 

Черник Н.Н.

Коммуникация = Communication: Электронное учебно-методическое пособие / Н.Н. Черник – Минск: БГЭУ, 2012. – 47 с. (2,4 усл. печ. л.)

 

Учебно-методическое пособие содержит тексты для изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, аудирования, грамматический и лексический материал, а также комплекс упражнений, целевая направленность которых состоит в формировании и совершенствовании лексических и грамматических навыков, развитии коммуникативных компетенций студентов, необходимых для общения в профессиональной среде в рамках темы «Коммуникация». Предназначено для студентов БГЭУ дневной формы обучения.

 

СOMMUNICATION

LEAD-IN

1. Read the following short texts illustrating the importance of communication. Ponder on the ideas covered in each of them. Express your own view and give examples to prove that communication plays a crucial role in our lives. How might a “hello day” affect your personal and work relationships?

 

A. Emperor Frederick - the 13th century ruler of the Holy Roman Empire - wanted to know what language had been spoken at the birth of mankind in the Garden of Eden. Was it Hebrew, Greek or Latin? He ordered an experiment in which the original circumstances would be recreated as closely as possible. A group of infants were to be isolated from hearing human speech from the moment of birth until they spoke their language. The babies were to be raised by nurses who were strictly charged to maintain complete silence when with the babies. The result? Every one of the babies died. The lack of communication can be lethal.



 

B. In the biblical story of the Tower of Babel, the people of the world come together to build a tower that would reach heaven. In a single stroke, their efforts came to naught because they were besieged by befuddled communication, resulting in breakdown of coordination. Intended message is frequently miscommunicated, misunderstood, misquoted or even missed altogether because of ineffective interpersonal communication skills.

 

C. Communication is a very significant part of your life. From the day you are born, your own ability to communicate is the largest single factor influencing what kinds of relationship you share with others and what happens to you as you make your way in the world.

 

D. The ability to effectively communicate with other people is an important skill. Through communication, people reach some understanding of each other, learn to like each other, influence one another, build trust, and learn more about themselves and how people perceive them. People who communicate effectively know how to interact with others flexibly, skillfully, and responsibly, but without sacrificing their own needs and integrity.

 

E. It’s a mark of real leadership to take the lead in getting to know people. It’s always a big person who walks up to you and offers his/her hand and says hello.



 

F.

Notice

STATE OF LOUSIANA

DAVID C. TREEN

GOVERNOR

Proclamation

WHEREAS, November 21 has been declared Worldwide “Hello Day”; and

WHEREAS, we are asking everyone, regardless of what language or nationality, who wants to make it a special day to say “hello” to ten people they have never spoken to before; and

WHEREAS, the purpose is to foster friendship, warmth and good relations among mankind.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DAVID C. TREEN, Governor of the State of Louisiana, do hereby proclaim November 21 as

“HELLO DAY”

in the State of Louisiana.

(SEAL)

DAVID C. TREEN

Governor of Louisiana

 

 

USEFUL VOCABULARY

 

affect, n – аффект. Syn: emotion.

affect, v –1) оказывать воздействие, влияние; касаться, затрагивать. Ex.: to affect smb. deeply. Syn: influence, move, touch. 2) волновать, трогать (эмоционально). 3) приносить вред, наносить ущерб. Ex.: shouting affects the voice - громкий крик вредит голосу. 4) поражать (о болезни). Ex.: affected by influenza - подхвативший грипп.

ambiguous, adj - 1) двусмысленный. 2) сомнительный; неопределенный, неясный; допускающий двоякое толкование; неоднозначный. Derived words: ambiguously.

ambiguity, n - 1) неопределённость, неясность; двусмысленность. Ex.: to clear up, remove an ambiguity - устранить неясность, двусмысленность, to avoid ambiguity - избежать неясности, двусмысленности. 2) двусмысленное выражение.

barrier, n - помеха, преграда, препятствие, барьер. Ex.: language barrier - языковой барьер, psychological barrier - психологический барьер, to overcome the barriers - преодолеть препятствия. Syn: obstacle.

breakdown, n - разрыв, срыв.

communicate, v - 1) говорить, сообщать, выражать. Ex.: to communicate information about/on smth. to smb. - сообщать информацию о чём-л. кому-л., to communicate one's ideas - выражать свои мысли, to communicate one’s discovery to the world - сообщить миру об открытии. 2) общаться. Derived words: communicator; communicatory.

communication, n - 1) информация (передаваемая в процессе общения). 2) процесс передачи информации. Ex.: verbal/non-verbal communication. 3) сообщение (переданное в устной или письменной форме). 4) связь. Ex.: communication service - служба связи. 5) средство связи. Ex.: communication satellite - спутник связи. 6) общение; знакомства, контакты, связи. Derived words: miscommunication.

communicative, adj – общительный, коммуникабельный. Syn: communicable, sociable.

confuse, v - 1) (with) смешивать, путать. Ex.: We in reality confuse wealth with money. - На деле мы путаем богатство с деньгами. 2) конфузить, смущать. 3) запутывать, сбивать с толку. Ex.: The teacher confused the student with too many questions. - Преподаватель засыпал студента вопросами, чем и сбил его с толку.

confusion, n - 1) смущение, смятение, замешательство. Ex.: complete/utter confusion - полное замешательство. 2) беспорядок; неразбериха, путаница. Syn: disorder, mess, muddle.

content, n - 1) содержание, суть, сущность; значение, смысл. Ex.: the content of the matter - суть дела. Syn: essence , core, substance, gist, significance, meaning.

context, n - 1) контекст. Ex.: to cite a passage out of context - цитировать какой-л. фрагмент в отрыве от контекста. 2) ситуация, окружение, среда; обстоятельства. Ex.: historical context - исторический контекст. Syn: situation, circumstance, environment, setting.

decode, v - расшифровывать; декодировать. Syn: solve. Derived words: decoder, decodable.

distract, v - 1) отвлекать, уводить в сторону. Ex.: to distract the attention/mind - отвлекать внимание, мысли. Derived words: distracter; distractible; distractibility; distracting; distractingly; distractive; distractively.

distraction, n - 1) отвлечение внимания. 2) то, что отвлекает внимание. 3) развлечение. Ex.: harmless distraction - безобидное развлечение.

disturb, v - расстраивать, нарушать; срывать (планы). Syn: interrupt, hinder.

disturbance, n - 1) нарушение (тишины, покоя, порядка), помехи. 2) беспокойство, тревога; возбуждение. 3) непорядок, беспорядок; нарушение порядка.

effect, n - результат, следствие. Cause and effect - причина и следствие. In effect - в действительности, в сущности, на самом деле.

eliminate, v- 1) устранять, исключать. 2) уничтожать, ликвидировать, аннулировать.

encode, v - кодировать, шифровать. Syn: code. Derived words: encoder, encoded.

encounter, n - 1) случайная встреча. Ex.: brief encounter - короткая встреча, casual/ chance encounter — случайная встреча. 2) первый опыт (общения с чем-либо), первое знакомство. 3) столкновение, стычка.

encounter, v - 1) (неожиданно) встретиться, столкнуться.

feedback, n - 1) обратная связь. 2) ответная реакция. Syn: response. Positive/negative/constructive feedback.

interact, v - взаимодействовать; влиять друг на друга.

interaction, n – взаимодействие. Ex.: face-to-face interaction.

interfere, v - 1) (in/with) вмешиваться во (что-л.). Ex.: to interfere with smb’s business - вмешиваться в чьи-л. дела. 2) (with) служить препятствием, мешать, быть помехой. Ex.: to interfere with one’s plans - мешать планам.

interpret, v - объяснять, толковать, интерпретировать. Derived words: misinterpret, interpretable; interpretability; interpretably.

interrupt, v - 1) обрывать, прерывать, внезапно прекращать. 2) прерываться, делать паузу. 3) прерывать; вмешиваться (в разговор). 4) отрывать (от чего-л.), мешать, препятствовать. Syn: hinder, prevent, hamper. Derived words: interruptible; interruptive; interruptively, interruption.

message, n - 1) сообщение, извещение, письмо. Ex.: clear message - ясное сообщение, coded message - закодированное сообщение, deliver a message – послать, передать сообщение, convey a message – передать сообщение. 2) поручение; задание, миссия. Get the message = to understand what is meant.

medium, n - pl. mediums, media. 1) способ, средство. 2) середина, промежуточная ступень, промежуточная стадия. 3) агент, посредник.

perceive,v - 1) воспринимать, понимать, осознавать. Syn: realize, become aware. 2) ощущать, различать, чувствовать. Ex.: to perceive colours - различать цвета. Derived words: perceivable ; perceivability ; perceivably ; perceiver.

perception, n - 1) восприятие, ощущение. Ex.: colour perception, visual perception speech perception. 2) осмысление, осознание, понимание.

prejudice, n - 1) предубеждение, предвзятое мнение. Ex.: to arouse prejudice - вызывать предубеждение, формировать предвзятое мнение, to break down/eliminate prejudice - разрушить, преодолеть предубеждение. 2) предрассудок. Ex.: race prejudice, religious prejudice.

prejudice, v - 1) (in/against) создавать предвзятое мнение; настраивать (за или против кого-л., чего-л.). 2) ставить под сомнение.

prevent, v - 1) предотвращать, предупреждать. Ex.: to prevent the spread of disease, to prevent crime. 2) (from) мешать, препятствовать; оберегать. Ex.: Nothing will prevent us from reaching our aim! - Ничто не сможет помешать нам достичь цели!

prevention, n - предотвращение, предохранение, предупреждение. Ex.: fire prevention - меры противопожарной безопасности, primary prevention - срочные меры (по предотвращению чего-л.), prevention of accidents - техника безопасности. Prevention is better than cure. - Предупреждение лучше лечения (пословица).

preventive, adj - 1) предупредительный, предохранительный; превентивный. Preventive measure - предупредительная мера. 2) профилактический. Syn: prophylactic.

stereotype, n - 1) клише, шаблонная фраза, избитое выражение, речевой штамп. Syn: cliché. 2) социальный стереотип, стереотипное восприятие, стереотипное отношение. Syn: preconception. 3) человек, мыслящий стереотипно.

stereotype, adj - 1) стереотипный, избитый, стандартный, шаблонный, неоригинальный. Ex.: stereotype ideas - стереотипные представления. Syn: stereotypical, stereotypic, stereotyped.

stereotype, v - 1) создавать стереотипное, стандартное представление о чём-л. 2) придавать шаблонность; делать банальным, избитым, затасканным; лишать оригинальности.

READING

1.Read the text and name the main elements of communication.

 

What is Communication?

The word communication comes from the Latin communicare, which means “to make common”. The original understanding of the word is consistent with the definition of communication used in modern psychology. Communication is the process of understanding and sharing meaning. Communication is considered a process because it’s an activity, exchange, or set of behaviors – not an unchanging, static product. It is variable, active, and dynamic. It starts long before the words begin to flow and can last long after the words stop.

Communication is a process that requires understanding. Your professor asks, “What is the ontogeny of your misogeny?” You hear the words, but you may not be able to understand or interpret them. Understanding, or grasping, the meaning of another person’s message does not occur unless the two communicators can elicit common meanings for words, phrases, and non-verbal codes.

In addition to understanding, communication involves sharing. Consider the use of the word sharing in language: we share a meal, we share an event, we share a sunset. Sharing is a gift that people exchange. We share with others when we talk to them alone or in larger groups. Regardless of the context, communication involves sharing.

What exactly is understood and shared in the communication process? When you use language for expression, meaningis the shared understanding of your feelings and thoughts. Meaning is the message you construct in your mind as you interpret the message sent.

An example of how meaning operates is the incident in which people around the world saw an African American being beaten by Los Angeles police. The meaning of the videotaped event was whatever interpretation people developed in their minds. Most people perceived the incident as police power gone awry. When the jury acquitted the police, many people interpreted the decision as a miscarriage of justice. Everyone who saw the videotapes or who read about the verdict constructed their own meaning, their own interpretation of the incident. The meaning attributed to the incident fashioned responses from agreement, to disbelief, to violence.

 

 

2.What side of communication (process, understanding, sharing, meaning) is highlighted in the following statements?

1) An Asian student who has to struggle with English as a second language has problems in communication with American classmates.

2) Communication is not an object that we can hold in our hand.

3) Parties communicating have an impact on each other.

4) An enraged person is angry in Great Britain but he is mad in America.

5) Every interpretation is the result of the accumulation of experiences preceding the present one.

6) Communication is an activity in which we participate.

7) As participants in communication we are limited by our own view of the situation. A student, for instance, may describe a conflict with a teacher as unfair treatment. “My professor doesn’t like me and grades me more harshly.” The teacher, conversely, might remark, “The student is unfamiliar with class policy.”

8) Communication involves others in the sense that the competent communicator considers the other person’s needs and expectations as he or she selects appropriate and effective messages to convey.

9) Each person is both sending and receiving messages simultaneously.

 

 

3.Match the beginnings and endings of the following statements:

Meaning is A the process of understanding and sharing meaning
Regardless of the context, B the two communicators can elicit common meanings for words, phrases, and non-verbal codes.
Communication is considered a process C the shared understanding of your feelings and thoughts. It is the message you construct in your mind as you interpret the message sent.
Communication is D communication involves sharing.
Understanding the meaning of another person’s message does not occur unless E because it’s an activity, exchange, or set of behaviors – not an unchanging, static product.

 

 

4.Answer the questions to the text:

 

1) What do you know about the origin of the word “communication”?

2) Why is the original understanding of the word consistent with the definition of communication used in modern psychology?

3) Why is communication considered to be a process?

4) Why does communication require understanding?

5) Why do psychologists believe that communication involves sharing?

6) What exactly do we share with people when we talk to them?

7) What is meaning?

8) Is meaning interpreted by all people identically?

 

 

5. Explain whether the following statements are true or false:

 

1) The word communication comes from the Latin “communicare”, which means “to commune”.

2) Communication is an act or an instance of communicating; the exchange of information, ideas, or feelings.

3) Communication starts long before the words begin to flow and can last long after the words stop.

4) Understanding the meaning of another person’s message does not occur unless communicators can elicit common meanings for words, phrases, and non-verbal codes.

5) Regardless of the content, communication involves sharing.

6) Meaning is the purpose underlying or intended by speech.

7) People interpret messages differently.

 

 

1.Read the text and name the main components of communication.

 

Components of Communication

All communication encounters have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. The better you understand these elements, the easier it will be for you to develop your own communication abilities.

PEOPLE

Sendersand receiversare persons who give out and take in messages. It is important to understand that during communication the role of sender does not belong exclusively to one person and the role of receiver to another. Instead, the processes of sending and receiving are constantly being reversed; thus, when we communicate with one or more people, we simultaneously send and receive.

CODE

People have ideas or thoughts they wish to express, and they express them in the form of messages. How can our thoughts become messages? We use codes to share our ideas to others. A code is any systematic arrangement or comprehensive collection of symbols, letters, or words that have arbitrary meanings and are used for communication.

Verbal codes consist of words and their grammatical arrangement. All languages are verbal codes. The English symbols, letters, and words we use arbitrary.

Nonverbal codes consist of all symbols that are not words, including our bodily movements, our use of space and time, our clothing, and sounds other than words.

ENCODING AND DECODING

The process of communication may be viewed as one of encoding and decoding. Encoding is defined as the act of putting an idea or thought into a code. Decoding is assigning meaning to that idea or thought.

 

CONTEXT

Communication always takes place in some context, or setting. Sometimes a context is so natural that we hardly notice it. At other times, however, the context makes such an impression on us that it exerts considerable control over our behavior. Consider the extent to which your present environment influences the way you act toward others. Consider the extent to which certain environments might cause you to alter or modify your posture, manner of speaking, or attire. Take into account the fact that sometimes conditions of place and time - that is, context - can affect our communications without our consciously realizing it.

MESSAGES

During every interpersonal, small-group, or public communication encounter we all send and receive both verbal and nonverbal messages. What you talk about, the words you use to express your thoughts and feelings, the sounds you make, your posture and gestures, your facial expressions, and perhaps even your touch or your smell all communicate information. In effect, a message is the content of a communicative act. When you smile, frown, shout, whisper, or turn away, you are communicating, and your communication is having some effect.

CHANNELS

We send and receive messages with and through all our senses; equally, messages may be sent and received through both verbal and nonverbal channels. Thus in effect we are multichannel communicators. We receive sound messages (we hear noises from the street), sight messages (we see how someone looks), taste messages (we savor the flavor of a particular food), smell messages (we smell the cologne a friend is wearing), and touch messages (we feel the roughness of a fabric). Effective communicators are adept at switching channels. They recognize that communication is a multichannel experience.

NOISE

In the context of communication, noise is anything that interferes with or distorts our ability to send or receive messages. Thus, although we are accustomed to thinking of noise as some particular sound or group of sounds, the aware communicator realizes that noise can also be created by, for example, physical discomfort, psychological makeup, intellectual ability, or the environment. Thus noise includes distractions such as a loud siren, a disturbing odor, and a hot room as well as personal factors such as prejudices, daydreaming, and feelings of inadequacy.

FEEDBACK

Whenever we communicate, we also receive information in return. The verbal and nonverbal cues that we perceive in reaction to our communication function as feedback. A smile, a frown, a chuckle, a sarcastic remark, a muttered thought, or simply silence can cause us to change, modify, continue, or end a transaction. Feedback that encourages us to continue behaving as we are is positive feedback, and it enhances whatever behavior is in progress. In contrast, negative feedback serves to stop a behavior and serves a corrective rather than a reinforcing function.

Both positive and negative feedback can emanate from internal or external sources. Internal feedback is feedback you give yourself as you monitor your own behavior or performance during a transaction. External feedback is feedback from others who are involved in the communication event. To be an effective communicator, you must be sensitive to both types of feedback. You must pay attention to your own reactions and the reactions of others.

EFFECT

As people communicate, they are each changed in some way by the interaction, which in turn influences what follows. In other words, communication can be viewed as an exchange of influences. This means that communication always has some effect on you and on the person or people with whom you are interacting. An effect can be emotional, physical, cognitive, or any combination of the three. An interpersonal, small-group, or public communication contact can elicit feelings of joy, anger, or sadness (emotional); communication can cause you to fight, argue, become apathetic, or evade an issue (physical); or it can lead to new insights, increased knowledge, the formulation or reconsideration of opinions, silence, or confusion (cognitive).

 

 

2.Match the beginnings and endings of the following definitions:

A message is A words and their grammatical arrangement.
Feedback is B a set of conditions and circumstances that is relevant to an event of communication.
Positive feedback is C the content of a communicative act.
Negative feedback is D persons who give out and take in messages.
A context is E anything that interferes with or dis­torts our ability to send or receive messages.
Senders and receiversare F the act of putting an idea or thought into a code.
A code is G assigning meaning to that idea or thought.
Verbal codes consist of H any systematic arrangement or comprehensive collection of symbols, letters, or words that have arbitrary meanings and are used for communication.
Nonverbal codes consist of I feedback that serves to stop a behavior and serves a corrective rather than a reinforcing function.
Encodingis J all symbols that are not words, including our bodily movements, our use of space and time, our clothing, and sounds other than words.
Decodingis K a set of verbal and nonverbal cues that we perceive in reaction to our communication function.
Noise is L feedback that encourages us to continue behaving in the same manner.

3.Answer the questions to the text:

 

1) How do people share the roles of a sender and receiver in the process of communication?

2) By what means do people transform thoughts and ideas they want to express into messages?

3) What is a code?

4) What is the difference between verbal and non-verbal codes?

5) What is the difference between encoding and decoding?

6) Do people always realize the context they communicate in?

7) Does context always affect our communications?

8) What does the term “message” mean?

9) What things can communicate information?

10) What do we send and receive messages with and through?

11) What types of channels do we use in the process of communication?

12) Why is it important to understand that communication is a multichannel experience?

13) What does the notion of noise mean?

14) What can noise be created by?

15) What does the concept “feedback” imply?

16) What is the difference between positive and negative feedback?

17) What is the difference between internal and external feedback?

18) Why must an effective communicator be sensitive to all types of feedback?

19) What do we mean when we say that communication can be viewed as an exchange of influences?

20) What types of effect do you know?

21) What effect can communication produce on interacting people?

4.Explain whether the following sentences are true or false:

 

1) The better you understand the elements of communication, the easier it will be for you to develop your own communication abilities.

2) When we communicate with one or more people, we send and receive messages in turn.

3) A code is any systematic arrangement or comprehensive collection of symbols, letters, or words that have arbitrary meanings and are used for communication.

4) Encodingis the act of assigning meaning to an idea or thought received, whereas decoding is the act of putting an idea or thought into a code.

5) Sometimes conditions of place and time - that is, context - can affect our communications without our consciously realizing it.

6) People transform ideas or thoughts they wish to express into verbal messages.

7) A message is the context of a communicative act.

8) In the act of communication we all send and receive either verbal or nonverbal messages.

9) All of us are multichannel communicators.

10) Feedback that encourages us to continue behaving as we are is positive feedback. In contrast, negative feedback serves to stop a behavior and serves a corrective rather than a reinforcing function.

11) External feedback is feedback you give yourself as you monitor your own behavior or performance during a transaction. Internal feedback is feedback from others who are involved in the communication event.

12) Communication can be viewed as an exchange of influences. This means that communication always has some effect on you and on the person with whom you are interacting.

 

 

5.Read the following statements and say whether you support them or not. Give your arguments.

1) Individuals perform the roles of the sender and receiver of messages simultaneously and continually.

2) The code includes the words and phrases we use to communicate our ideas as well as our facial expressions, bodily movements, gestures, touch, tone of voice.

3) The message may be relatively brief and easy to understand, or it may be long and complex.

4) Some messages are intentional, while others are accidental.

5) If we are watching television or a movie, we rely on two channels of communication - audio and video ones. All forms of communication require two or more channels.

6) Feedback is part of any communication situation. Silence and hesitation on the telephone is feedback. Restive behavior and quizzical looks in the lecture hall are examples of feedback for a public speaker.

7) Imagine you need to find a restroom in an unfamiliar building. You say to a person passing quickly past, “Excuse me, can you…” But the person keeps on going without paying any attention to you. This is an example of positive verbal feedback.

8) Loud sounds, a bit of food on someone’s face, a person standing too close, daydreaming about a loved one, worry about the bills, pain from a tooth can be examples of noise.

 

 

6.The“Noise Noose”

In what ways might each of the following elements function as noise and thus choke off effective communication?

1) chewing gum 6) stomachache
2) black eye 7) sunglasses
3) cold, damp room 8) shyness
4) personal bias 9) television
5) inappropriate choice of words 10)a habit of not smiling

7.Compare and contrast the types of communication that would be most likely to occur in each of the following contexts. Include a description of the nature of each interaction, the probable attire of each interactant, and his or her demeanor.

1) first few minutes of a party 4) queue in a clinic
2) business meeting 5) political rally
3) your home at mealtime 6) football stadium

8.Inventory all types of channels that you’ve received messages through today. Describe the messages. Which channel are you most attuned to? Why? To what extent do you rely on one or more channels while excluding or disregarding others?

9.Arrange the following actions by the type of feedback they belong to:

a) positive verbal feedback;

b) positive non-verbal feedback;

c) negative verbal feedback;

d) negative non-verbal feedback.

A forward body lean, positive facial expression, “Of course”, frowns, movements away, smiling, “So what?”, laughing, decreased touching, “That’s interesting”, “I don’t see your point”, increased touching, general non-responsiveness, movement toward the other person, “That’s right”, “Let’s change the subject”, decreased eye contact, “I agree with you”, “That’s OK”, brevity, defensiveness, “It sounds good”, “I see what you mean”.

 

Describe situations that could serve as examples of communication with zero feedback.

10.Choose a partner and role-play one of the following situations:

- a conversation between two strangers waiting for a bus during a storm;

- quarrel between lovers;

- a controversy between a teacher and a student over a grade;

- a discussion between friends about the rising cost of tuition.

You may imagine any other situation that you like. After enacting your scene, describe all the components of communication in it, focusing on effect.

11.Draw or build something that represents your understanding of communication. You can focus on any or all of the components of the process. Your model can be lifelike or abstract. Be ready to present it to the class. Specifically, be sure to do the following:

a) Describe what your model suggests are the essential elements of the communication process (whether pictured or implied);

b) Explain what your model says about the communication process;

c) Develop a saying or epigram that sums up your perception of the state of being a participant in communication;

d) Prove that your model of communication is an advantageous one.

1. Read the text and explain why communication is important for any business.

Communication in an Organization

Effective communication is a building block of successful organizations. It is significant for managers in organizations so as to perform the basic functions of management, i.e., planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities. Managers generally devote approximately 6 hours per day to communication. They spend much time on face to face or telephonic communication with their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers also use written communication in the form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

Communication serves as a foundation for planning. All the essential information must be communicated to managers who in turn must communicate the plans in order to implement them.

Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps to identify and assess alternative courses of actions.

Organizing also requires effective communication with others about their job task. Similarly leaders as managers must communicate efficiently with their subordinates so as to achieve the team goals.

Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

Controlling is not possible without written and oral communication. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in a company. Employees must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors.

Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes.

An efficient communication system requires managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. A manager must be able to discover various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid them. Thus, the primary responsibility of a manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.

2.Reorder the words so as to get 7 correct sentences:

 

1) as basic communication effective for functions in is management managers of organizations perform significant so the to

2) a able and avoid barriers be communication discover manager must preventive steps take them to to to various

3) a an and communication develop effective in is maintain manager of organization primary responsibility system the the to

4) all be communicate communicated essential implement in in information managers must must order plans the the them to to turn who

5) a actions alternative and as assess communication courses decision-making for helps identify information is it of of process source to

6) about communication effective job organizing others requires task their with

7) an and communication delivering efficient in managerial messages proficiency receiving requires system

 

 

3.Answer the questions to the text:

 

1) Why is communication significant for managers in organizations?

2) Why is communication helpful to managers?

3) What examples of oral and written communication in organizations are given in the text?

4) Why does communication play a crucial role in moulding employee’s attitudes?

5) Why does an efficient communication system require managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages?

 

4. Give your arguments to support the following statements:

 

1) Effective communication is a building block of successful organizations.

2) Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities.

3) Communication serves as a foundation for planning.

4) Organizing requires effective communication with subordinates and colleagues.

5) The importance of communication in leading can scarcely be overestimated.

6) Controlling is not possible without written and oral communication.

7) Communication plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes.

8) The primary responsibility of a manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.

1. Read the text and name 11 barriers that can hamper effective communication in an organization.


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