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Тема: Історія медицини в Україні



Exercise 1. Read the text and translate it.

From the History of Medicine

The search for health is as the history of mankind.

In Babylon it was a custom to show the sick in the streets, so that passers-by could say how to treat the sick from their own experience. It was not allowed to pass a sick man in silence.

A papyrus was found dating back to 1600 B.C. about surgery and treatment of wounds. Then another papyrus was found with about 900 prescriptions, some of these prescriptions are used by doctors today. People learn much from Egyptian manuscripts and from embalmed bodies. Examination of some of these bodies showed many interesting facts. For example people of those times knew such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and appendicitis.

 

 

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Search - пошук

Custom - звичай

Passers-by - перехожі

Papyrus - папірус

B.C. - (Before Christ) до нашої ери

Manuscript - манускрипт, рукопис

Embalmed - забальзамований

 

Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

1. What was the custom in Babylon?

______________________________________________________________________

2. What did passers-by have to do when they passed a sick man?



______________________________________________________________________

3. What papyrus was found dating back to 1600 B.C.?

______________________________________________________________________

4. What did people learn from Egyptian manuscripts and embalmed bodies?

______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3. Name all the diseases you know.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 4. What famous names in the history of medicine do you know? The text below will give you some more information.

Clinical medicine and health protection greatly developed in Roman times. The name of Galen is widely known. Galen worked first as a surgeon at a school for gladiators. He went to Rome when he had much practice, but he continued to experiment on living animals, especially apes and pigs.

The Roman army had a well-organized service of surgeons. The gladiators school was an ideal school for training in surgery.

Notes:

Protection - охорона

Roman - римський

Surgeon - хірург

Gladiator - гладіатор

Ape - людиноподібна

Service - служба

Training - тренування; підготовка; навчання

Develop - розвивати

Organize - організувати

Galen - Гален (давньогрецький лікар, анатом, фізіолог)

 

 

Самостійна робота №2 до практичного заняття №2

Тема:ВООЗ.

 

HEALTH SERVICE ORGANIZATION

It is generally the goal of most countries to have their health services organized in such a way to ensure that individuals, families, and communities obtain the maximum benefit from current knowledge and technology available for the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health. In order to play their part in this process, governments and other agencies are faced with numerous tasks, including the following:

1. They must obtain as much information as is possible on the size, extent, and urgency of their needs; without accurate information, planning can be misdirected.

2. These needs must then be revised against the resources likely to be available in terms of money, manpower, and materials.

3. Based on their assessments, countries that need to determine realistic and draw up plans.

4. Finally, a process of evaluation needs to be built into the program; the lack of reliable information and accurate assessment can lead to confusion, waste, and inefficiency.

Health services of any nature reflect a number of interrelated characteristics, among which the most important from a national point of view is the curative function; that is to say caring for those already ill. Others include special services that deal with particular groups (such as children or pregnant women) and with specific needs such as nutrition or immunization; preventive services, the protection of the health both of individuals and of communities; health education; and, as mentioned above, the collection and analysis of information.

 

Самостійна робота №3 до практичного заняття №5

Тема: Анестезія.

 

 

Anesthesia

Exercise 1. Read the next.

A. Anesthesia means loss of sensation. Drugs that cause Anesthesia

Work by blocking the signals that pass along your nerves to your brain. This stops you feeling pain. When the drugs wear off, you start to feel normal sensation again.
B. The development of effective anesthetics in the 19th century was an important factor in successful surgery. Before this time, few operations were possible, and surgeons were judged by their speed. Some doctors used alcohol or morphine to reduce the pain, but patients were usually held or strapped down. Many died on the operating table. Anesthesia meant that surgeons could take more time and perform more complex procedures.
Ether was one of earliest anesthesia, but it had some drawbacks-for example, it cause vomiting. It was quickly replaced by chloroform, which was more potent and easier to use then ether. However, it is was not as safe to use as ether, and could cause sudden death. By the 1920s, intravenous induction agents were introduced. They enabled patents to fall asleep quickly and pleasantly. In the 1940s muscle relaxants became available.

C. Anesthesia can be given in different ways, and not all anesthesia makes you unconscious.
-Local anesthesia nubs a small part of your body. You stay conscious but free from pain.
-Regional anesthesia can be used for operations on larger or deeper parts of the body. The most common regional anesthetics are spinal and epidural bladder operations, or hip replacements. You stay conscious but free from pain.
-general anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, and you feel nothing. It is consciousness stars to return
D. Modern monitoring systems and a greater understanding of the function of the body mean that anesthesia is now very safe. Fewer than 1 in 250,000 deaths during operations are directly related to anesthesia.

 

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Exercise 2. Choose the best headings to match sections of the text.

The are two more headings then you need
1.some Types of Anesthesia________
2. Death on the Operating Table__________
3. A Short History of Anesthesia_____________
4. Anesthetic Nurses_____________
5. What is Anesthesia____________
6. Anesthesia Today_________

 

Exercise 3. Answer these questions based on the text :
1.How do anesthetic drugs work?

________________________________________________________________________

2. Why do you think patients were held or strapped down before anesthetic drugs were available?

________________________________________________________________________

3. What difference did anesthetic drugs make to the work of surgeons?

________________________________________________________________________

5. Which was safer to use – ether or chloroform?

________________________________________________________________________

6. Which was easier to use - ether or chloroform?

________________________________________________________________________

7. Do patients lose consciousness during regional anesthesia?

________________________________________________________________________

8. Is death resulting from anesthesia common?

________________________________________________________________________

 


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