Famous People of Great Britain
The United Kingdom is a great country with a rich history, traditions and customs. It gave birth to many talented people in different fields and spheres: literature, art, science, music, sports.
Isaac Newton is a famous mathematician who worked out a basic formula. Being a student at Trinity College he heard lectures in Greek, Latin, mathematics, theology. He mastered many subjects independently because he was interested in them. By and by his interests began to center more and more on physics and mathematics. He still would have earned an honored name in scientific history. And at that time he was only twenty-two years old.
Charles Dickens is a well-known English writer. He was born in 1812 at Portsmouth where his father was a clerk at Navy Office. He was the oldest of a large family. His mother was a well-educated person. His family moved to London where he worked at a lawyer's office. He made some reports for newspapers. Soon he entered the "Morning Chronicle" and his work of writing really began. He went all over the country, got news, wrote stories, met people. In 1836 he became famous. He wrote novel after novel. At the same time he was working as a newspaperman, visited America, Italy, Switzerland, Paris. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Christopher Wren is a well-known English architect. He designed many palaces, fine houses, beautiful churches including St. Paul's Cathedral. It took him 35 years to build this cathedral and when it was finished he was an old man. After his death he was buried in it.
Robert Burns is a famous English poet. He was born in a farming family and received some elementary schooling. He studied world geography, English grammar, some physics, astronomy, botany and was fond of Shakespeare and Milton. He was a man of character, a man of principle and a brilliant talker. He died rather young at the age of 37.
18. My Native Town
I live in Smila. My town is not very big. It is in Cherkasy region. It stands on the Tyasmin River. Before the revolution Smila was a typical provincial town. Duke Bobrynsky was a master and organizer of industry and agriculture in this area. There were sugar refinery plants, railway station, 1 hospital for 10 beds with 1 doctor, some church schools and a private school. The modern town is very nice. There is a square with monument to Lenin, a fountain, a House of Culture, a Post office and the House of Soviets in the center of the town. There are many trees and flowers in the central square. Sverdlov Street is the central street of our town. The traffic is heavy. There are many buses and cars. There are monuments to Lenin, Chmelnytsky, Taras Shevchenko, monument of Glory in our town. Industry is developed in our town. There are such plants:
radio plant, sewing factory,
furniture factory and others.
The nature and history of our town is very nice and interesting. It is surrounded by forests and fields. There are some museums. There is a Yuri Hill. I like my town very much.
Technological Process of Sugar Production
Sugar is made from the sugar beets. They are sowed in the fields. The sugar beets are transported to the territory of the sugar plants by lorries, tractors and other transport. The mud and stones are removed with the help of special mechanisms and machines. The sugar beets are stocked.
The hydroconveyer transports them to the plant. Light and heavy impurities are removed on this way. Then the sugar beets are washed in the beet washers. Ferroimpurities are removed. The beets are weighed. They are cut into shreds (стружку) on the beet mill.
Then it goes to the diffusing apparatus. We get the sweet juice. Then it is purified. The juice goes to the evaporating apparatus and we get the syrup.
The syrup is supplied to the vacuum apparatus where the sugar is boiled out. Then it goes to the centrifuge. We get crystals of sugar. The resulting syrup is called "molasses". The wet crystals of sugar- come to the drying drum. Then it comes to the conveyer. The sugar is packed into the bags 50 kilograms each.
The machine is known to be the major and efficient means of labour in modern production. The machine-building industry produces various kinds of machinery and machine-tools to meet the requirements of engineering branches as well as the light and food industries. The engineering industry is characterized by such features as increased capacities and speeds of machinery the replacement of mechanical control systems by electrical and hydraulic ones. It is characterized by simplification of machinery design, an increasing use of automatic devices and the introduction of programme control techniques on a mass scale. Automation of production means producing automatic and semiautomatic machinery, machine-tools, numerically controlled machines based on microprocessors and microcomputers, installing transfer lines. It is a key production for the building of the material and technical base of economy. What is automation? Shortly speaking, automation consists of four integral parts: transfer machines, automatic assembly, communication engineering and control engineering. There is difference between mechanization and automation. In automation the functions of control, maintaining machines are transferred to other machines while in mechanization these functions are transferred to the working mechanisms.
The mechanized and automated production lines replace the work of a tremendous number of workers. There are fully automated enterprises such as chemical and hydro-power plants. The development and mass production of new types of computer technology makes it possible to exclude man from the entire technological processes.
The so-called flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are able to meet the demands of industry. They are considered to be the future of the automated plant.
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