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An educated man and computer


Nowadays an educated man means to have a special education in your field of activity, to know much about science, to be a good specialist, to use computer for your knowledge. You must solve any practical problem at once and fulfill any practical task. But to be on the top of scientific achievements it is impossible without consumption of new information. A man should read new magazines and newspapers, special literature, issued not only in your country but abroad, in highly developed countries, to take the latest information from the Internet through the computer. It is impossible to imagine a new specialist without a computer. It is mechanization of brainwork. Computers are on your working desk and a notebook is with you on the business trip.

Computers can supply the necessary information through the Internet and can store it. They can process the information and data. They can perform calculations and solve the given problems. Computers increased man's thinking capabilities of planning, analyzing, computing and controlling. They penetrated all spheres of our modern society, from nuclear energy production and missile design to the bank calculations, weather forecasting, manufacturing, research and medical diagnosis.

We see machines taking over some of our simple mental processes. It is uneconomic to employ human beings, when there are machines, which can do the same operations faster, cheaper and more reliably. Undoubtedly, the computers will be used in all spheres of our life in future.


The Ties of Ukraine with England


Ukraine is a large country. It is situated in the South - Eastern Europe. Its territory is 603,000 sq.kms. Ukraine is a sovereign state. It proclaimed its independence in August of 1991.

It found its recognition among 2.5 mln Ukrainians living abroad. They left Ukraine in 3 waves: after the WWI, after the revolution and during WWII. Ukraine was a highly developed country.

But now, in the result of breaking ties between the former republics the economy of Ukraine is in crises. But never the less, Ukraine tries to conclude new treaties and agreements with many countries. For example, our president Leonid Kutchma had meetings with the delegations of Cuba, Belorussia, Russia, with the president of the USA George Bush.

Ties of Ukraine with England are old and permanent. Prime Minister and Queen Elizabeth visited Moscow and Kyiv last year. The new treaties and agreements on cooperation, political and economical assistance have been signed. We had the opportunity to watch TV programs about the visit of these delegations. England is interested to help our country and to put their money into developing of our economy.

There are many twin cities which develop their relations in different fields of life. There is an exchange of delegations of teachers, students, workers, sport teams and so on. The twin cities are: Kyiv and Edinburgh, Donetsk and Sheffield, Gorlovka and Barnsley.

They help the Ukrainian people in that difficult time. The representatives of the organization "Hope Now" helped the orphanages in Cherkasy region. The Tile Hill College from Coventry presented computers for Smila Technical School of Food Industry. A lot of people support the relations of Ukraine with other countries.





From the first electronic digital computers of the forties to to-day's versatile computers and most up-to-date microcomputers very little has changed as far as basic computer operation.

To-day digital computers still use the same logical operations as their processors. There are many basic concepts that can be applied to all types of computers, including microcomputers. The computer is faster and more accurate than people, but unlike most people it must be given a complete set of instructions that tell it exactly what to do at each step of its operations. This set of instructions, called a programme, is prepared by one or more persons for each job a computer is to do. These programmes are placed in the computer's memory unit in binary-coded form, with each instruction having unique code.

Computers in present use range considerably: from tiny things to big fellows. The microcomputer is the smallest and the newest member of the computer family. It usually consists of several integrated circuit chips, including a microprocessor chip, memory chips, and input/output interface chips, which are a result of tremendous, advances in large-scale integration.

Most of the computer principles and concepts are common to all categories of computers, although there can be tremendous variations from computer to computer.

The computer programmer provides a programm of instructions and data which specifies every detail of what to do, how to do, and when to do it.

Every computer contains five essential elements or units: the arithmetic and logic unit, the memory unit, the control unit, the input unit and the output unit.


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