PLANT, ITS PARTS AND FUNCTIONS
The principal parts of a plant are: 1. the root system, 2. the stems and leaves; 3. the reproductive part made up of flowers, fruits or seeds. The root grows downward into the soil and has two main functions - to absorb plant nutrients and water from the soil and to anchor the plant. The fact is that there is more than one type of root system, hi many gymnosperms and dicots, there is typically a taproot system in which a single, large, deep growing root is accompanied by less prominent secondary roots. The taproot itself may function as a food- storing organ, as in carrots and radishes. In contrast, mono-cots and some dicots have fibrous root systems composed of numerous thin roots. Such a root system holds soil very ell, making grasses very useful on hillsides where runoff from rain could cause erosion. Fibrous root systems are for adsorption of water and minerals.
As to stems and leaves, they are usually above the ground. A stem and its leaves, taken together, are called a shoot. Unlike the root, the stem may be green and capable of photosynthesis. The stem may be regarded as a device for holding and displaying the leaves to the sun, so as to maximize the photosynthesis yields, as well as for providing transport connections between the root and leaves. The points where leaves are attached to the stem are called nodes, and the stem regions between nodes are called intermodes. Where each leaf meets the stem, there is a lateral bud, which develops into a branch. A branch is also a stem.
Each lowering plant has leaves. A typical leaf consists of a green, broad, thin portion, the blade, which contains a system of vascular tubes, called veins. In most plants, it is the leaves that carry on most photosynthesis, producing food and releasing oxygen gas. Other important metabolic processes, including a key and releasing oxygen gas. Other important metabolic processes, including a key part of nitrogen cycle, are also among the responsibilities of the leaf.
In some species, leaves are important food storage organs; in others water is stored in the leaves. Leaves are adapted to serve as photosynthetic, light-gathering organs. The leaves mybe compound as with clovers and potatoes, or simple as in the case of the poplar tree.
A flower is the part of the plant where seeds are produced. Thus to produce seeds the plant must have flowers. A complete flower is made up of four principle parts, namely a) sepals, b) petals, c) stamens, d) the pistil. A seed consist of an embryo, and one or more seed coats. The usual shapes for fruits and seeds are globular, elliptical, ovoid, conical, etc. All parts of a plant must be developed well and proportionally enough to function properly.
Answer the questions
1. What are the principle parts of a plant?
2. What are the main functions of the root system?
3. What is a taproot?
4. What is the difference between a taproot and a fibrous root system?
5. What part of a plant take part in the photosynthesis?
6. What are the main functions of the stem?
7. What blade does a typical leaf consist of?
8. What functions of leaves do you know?
9. Where are the seeds produced?
10.What are the principle parts of a complete flower?
2. Складіть речення з поданих слів
1. Into the soil, downward, the root, grow.
2. Above, stems and leaves, the ground, usually, are.
3. Foodstoring, may, organs, taproot, as, function.
4. Hold, root system, very, well, soil, fibrous.
5. Provide, stems, between, transport, the root, and, connection, leaves.
6. Veins, of, called, tubes, vascular, system.
7. Organs, are leaves, light – gathering.
8. Seeds, have, flowers, must, the plant, to produce.
Read and translate the text“MEDICINAL PLANTS”
To release –випускати, звільняти
Folk medicine –народна медицина
Intestinal – кишкові
To prevent – запобігати
Prevention – профілактика
Remedy – лікарський засіб
To cure – лікувати
Shape – форма
Colour – колір
Vegetative process –вегетативний процес
Photosynthesis - фотосинтез
Since time immemorial man has known about the medicinal properties of plants and widely used them for practical purposes.
Different parts of the plant may be used for medicinal purposes: roots and rhizomes, stems and leaves, flowers and inflorescences, fruits and seeds. All these parts are collected in certain period of time. It is well known that the proper time of harvesting or collecting plants and herbs is during that period when active, constituents of the plant are highest in their number and quality. Roots and rhizomes are collected in autumn after the vegetative processes have finished. Bark is collected in the spring before these processes begin. Leaves and flowering tops are collected when photosynthesis is most active which is usually about the time of flowering and before the maturing of the fruit and seed. Flowers are collected in the tune of pollination. Fruits may be collected either before or after the ripening period. Seeds may be collected when fully matured.
All parts of the plant differ as to the shape, taste, colour, odour and pharmacological activity. Many of the most useful plants and the time of their collecting were known and used in the treatment of certain diseases in antiquity long time before the development of sciences. Based on the results of observations and experience of many generations, folk medicine serves to some extend as the source of scientific medicine. The unripen seed-capsules of the opium poppy were used as pain-killers in ancient Greece. Garlic was known to man 5000 years ago. Diocorides a Greek physician of the second century prescribed garlic for all lung and intestinal diseases. Hippocrates added that it was effective as a laxative and diuretic. Many medicinal plants were used for the prevention and, curing of diseases by the ancient Slavs. .The medieval physician Aviceina recommended especially the so called Rus' medicines. Folk medicine compasses a wide variety of medicinal remedies and medications.
Medicinal plants, an integral part of folk medicine, are widely cultivated in Ukraine. Many successful remedies and resources of folk medicine are studied by specialists and researchers for use in scientific medicine.
1. Випишіть з тексту слова латино – грецького походження та перекладіть їх
2. Дайте визначення поняттям:
Model: A seed is a reproductive part of a plant.
Root – ___________________________________________________
Stem – ___________________________________________________
Leaf – ___________________________________________________
Taproot system – __________________________________________
Fibrous root system – _______________________________________
Shoot – __________________________________________________
Node – ___________________________________________________
Bud – ___________________________________________________
Branch – _________________________________________________
Flower – _________________________________________________
Fruit - ___________________________________________________
Read and translate the text“PLANT INTOXICATION”
Raw material –сировина
Boggy soil –болотистий грунт
To maintain –зберігати, отримувати
To attract –приваблювати
Attractive – привабливий
To explore – досліджувати
To supply –постачати
Danger – небезпека
To feed – живитись
Opium poppy – мак
Poisoning - отруєння
The knowledge that there are plants that contain poison and narcotics is almost as old as mankind himself. H. L. Edlin
I. Opium poppy. An unusual plant juice which is able to heal and destroy a man is contained in the lacteal glands of a fragile plant, the OPIUM POPPY (Papaver Somniferum). When young the charming flowers, 10 cm in diameter, have four light-colored petals concealed within the two sepals of the calyx. The buds droop but straighten up as they open, throwing off the covering of the calyx and spreading lout with a striking dark circle at the bottom. The cask-like stigma sitting on top, grows larger after fertilization to form the globular poppy-head. It contains up to several thousands tiny, kidney-shaped seeds. According to the species, they are white, pink, grey, greenish, blue or black. Only the ripe seeds contain no alkaloids which otherwise Impregnate all other parts of the plant. The white juice of the plant, termed latex, flows out when the unripe poppy- head is cut, drying and' hardening in the air. It changes into a poisonous brown substance called opium.
The better known of its side products are morphine and codeine. It its pure state, morphine is a drug that sends a person to sleep, cases his pains and deadens his sense of pain. It can do much to help the sick but it can also kill. The misuse of opium as a narcotic has spread from eastern Asia to Europe and America. The ancient Sumerians (4000 B.C.), the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, all knew and cultivated the opium poppy as a medicinal and oil-bearing plant. As expressed in its Latin species name "somniferum" - from the word somnus" — meaning "sleep", and "fero" meaning "I bring", the poppy was a plant bringing sleep and dreams. In mythology, the god of sleep, Hypnos, wears a poppy garland.
II. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is one of the oldest plants used by. man. Although it has become best known as the source of the narcotic drug hashish, or marijuana, it is also a textile and oil-giving plant.
Hemp is an annual plant with inconspicuous male and female flowers separated on different plants. Only I female plants are grown for spinning fibres. They have a stem which is up to 4 m high, and broad palm-shaped leaves. The small flowers change into capsules covered with the hard, shiny, dried calyx. They are the main component of bird seed used to feed exotic birds. The dried plant is included in the official list of medical herbs of many countries. Hemp was cultivated as a narcotic and oil-giving plant in 1000 B.C. in India and the Orient. According to Chinese records, knowledge of this oldest narcotic plant goes back to 2000 B.C. It is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of India for the resin-like substance exuded by tiny glands on the leaves, the ends of the branches, and from the cluster of female flowers. The narcotic hashish has an intoxicating effect at first, but later destroys living organism.
The use of hashish has its roots in the Orient where narcotics took the place of drinking alcohol, which was forbidden by the sacred writings of the Muslims in the Koran.
Answer the questions
1. What is this text about?
2. Why does this text have such title?
3. How many parts does this text consist of?
4. Why are these plants described in one text?
5. What is the difference between these two plants?
6. What are the properties of opium poppy and hemp?
7. How long have people used opium poppy as a drug?
8. Are these plants always used as medicines at present time?
2. Say if it’s true:
1. The ancient Greeks and Romans used opium poppy only as a narcotic.
2. The ripe seeds contain opium alkaloids.
3. The side – products of opium are morphine and codeine.
4. These drugs are used as pain – killers.
5. Hemp is a perennial plant.
6. The resin – like substance is extracted from the roots of hemp.
7. The dried hemp is included in the official list of medical herbs.
8. Hemp and opium poppy grow in Ukraine.
Task IV. GRAMMAR
1. Складіть речення з поданих слів
1. treat, disease, drug, many, sulfa, infections.
2. prevent, mumps, sulfa, scarlet, drugs, fever, chicken-pox, and.
3. sulfa, side-effects, sometimes, drugs, produce.
4. sulfonamides, were, 1935, in, discovered.
5. are, cultivated, many, plants, today, drug.
6. plants, in, is time it, very, proper, to important, collect.
7. before, doctor, arms, the, washed, operation, the, his, hands, and.
8. successful, operation, the, was?
9. the, you, doctor, any, from, prescription, have?
2.Складіть запитання до яких ці речення будуть відповідями.
1. Since time immemorial man has known about the medical properties of plants.___________________________________________________
3. All parts of plants are collected in certain period of time.
4. The unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy was used as pain – killers in ancient Greece.
5. All parts of the plant differ as to the shape, taste, colour, odour.
6. Many folk medicine remedies are studied by specialists.
Самостійна робота №6
Тема: Опрацювання матеріалів: «Antibiotics», «English Prescription», , «Декодування рецептів з використанням латинських абревіатур» «Наказовий спосіб».
- тематичну лексику та термінологію;
- структуру та лексико-граматичні особливості рецептів;
- латинські абревіатури;
- класифікацію антибіотиків;
- утворення наказового способу.
- прочитати та перекласти тематичні тексти;
- виконати лексичні вправи;
- опрацювати граматичний матеріал «Наказовий спосіб» Л.Верба «Граматика сучасної англійської мови» с.66.67;
- виконати граматичні завдання;
- декодувати рецепти з використанням латинської абревіатури.
Task I. Read and translate the text«Antibiotics»
Drug therapy – лікарська терапія
Effective control –ефективний контроль
Human pathogens –патогени людини
Physical fitness –фізичний стан
Biologic constitue –біологічні складові частини
Moldy bread – цвілий хліб
Infectious disease – інфекційне захворювання
Biosynthetic origin – біосинтетичне походження
Protein synthesis – синтез протеїнів (білків)
Ribosome level – рівень рибосом
Mechanism of action – механізм дії
Antibiotics probably represent the greatest single contribution of drug therapy in the past half-century, a period characterized by unprecedented advancements in health care. This group of drugs provides effective control if many human microbial pathogens that previously caused prolonged, incapacitation or death without appreciable regard for age, economic status, or physical fitness.
The word "antibiotic" is derived from the term antibiosis, which literally means "against life" (and - - т gainst, bios - - life). The most widely accepted concept defines an antibiotic as a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in low concentration, to inhibit selectively or even to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms through an antimetabolic mechanism. Essentially all definitions limit antibiotics to biologic constituents that exert their action in low concentrations. This definition excludes microbial metabolites, such as ethanol, (that are active against protoplasmic functions at higher concentrations.
The history and development of antibiotic agents are similar to the patterns noted for other types of drugs. Relatively ineffective attempts to use materials that are now recognized as having antibiotic association can be detected in folk medicine and in prepenicilline scientific literature. The study of antibiotics began in 1929, when A. Fleming proved that the filtrate of a broth culture of the fungus Peni-cillium notatum has antibacterial properties in relation to gram-positive micro-organisms. In 1940 E. Chain and H. Florey obtained a relatively stable preparation of penicillin. Development in the antibiotic field since 1940 is characterized by a practical blending of empiric observation . and increasingly sophisticated manipulations of biologic and chemical factors. This familiar pattern is frequently overlooked because an aura of the 20-th century miracle drugs has surrounded the antibiotics.
Reports, some dating back 2500 years, indicate that various ancient and primitive peoples applied moldy bread, soybean curds, and other materials to boils and wounds liable to infection; this can be considered a folk medicine type of antibiotic therapy. Pasteur demonstrated bacterial antagonism shortly after he established the bacterial etiology of infectious disease. Initially, antibiotic therapy was commonly employed in a wide range of microbial infections with only limited logic or design.
The commercially available and therapeutically usefulantibiotics can be classified on the basis of the biosynthetic origin ofthe antibiotic molecules. Antibiotics derived from arnino acids include the penicillins die cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, cycloserine, dactinomycine, and the polypeptide antibiotics (e.g.— bacitracin, polymyxin).
Antibiotics derived from acetate metabolism include tetracyclines (a group of actinomycete antibiotics that have a broad spectrum and considerable therapeutic utility), macrolide antibiotics, polyenes, etc.
According to the character of action antibiotics are subdivided into bacteriostatic (tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and others) and bactericidal (periicilline, ristomycin, etc). The mechanism of action of antibiotics varies. For example, penicilline inhibits the synthesis of polymers of the bacterial cell wall and streptomycin inhibits the incorporation of some arnino acids in protein synthesis. Chloramphenicol is a specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis of bacterial protein. Tetracyclines, lincomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomy-cin, spectinornycin, sparsomycin and others belong to the group of antibiotics which inhibit protein biosynthesis, in bacteria at the ribosome level. So there are various hypo'he-ses and theories which have not entirely revealed the mechanism of action, and this question has not been completely solved.
1. Answer the questions:
1. How can you define antibiotics?
2. What do antibiotics provide?
3. What do all definitions limit antibiotics to?
4. What do you know about the history of antibiotic?
5. What do you know about the development of antibiotic?
6. What can be considered a folk medicine type of antibiotic therapy?
8. Where was antibiotic therapy commonly employed initially?
9. What two groups are antibiotic subdivided into according to their character of action?
10.What do you know about the mechanism of action of antibiotics?
2. Complete the sentences:
1. Antibiotics provide effective control of microbial pathogens ____________________________________________________.
2. Antibiotic is a chemical substance that has capacity to__________________________________________________.
3. The history and development of antibiotic agents are ____________________________________________________.
4. Development of antibiotic field is characterized by__________________________________________________.
5. Various ancient and primitive people applied ____________________________________________________.
6. Antibiotics derived from acetate metabolism include______________________________________________.
7. According to the character of action antibiotics are_________________________________________________.
Task II Read and translate the text«English Prescriptions»
A prescription is a health – care program implemented by a physician or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient, caretaker, nurse, pharmacist or other therapist. Commonly the term prescription is used to mean an order to take certain medications.
The word “prescription” comes from the Latin “praescriptus” compounded from prae (before) + scriber (to write) = to write before.
The language of prescription was unique in Great Britain some half century ago when all the names of drugs were Latinized. Today all prescriptions are written in English but you still find contracted Latin words.
A more serious problem is the naming of drugs. Each drug has three names. They are the chemical name, the generic name and the trade name. most drugs have several trade names because each company gives it a different name.
For example: ampicillin – the generic name of well known antibiotic; alpha – aminobenzyl P – it’s chemical name; Omnipen, Penbritin, Polycillin are its trade names.
It goes without saying that a prescription cannot be written without a very good knowledge of the dose effect of drugs. Each drug has its own dose specification dependent on pharmacological properties, metabolism of drug. It should have the following information:
- Prescriber information (name, address of the physician, his telephone number).
- Patient information (name, address, age, date).
- The symbol “Rx” is the symbol of recipe and it means (in Latin) a command for a patient “take”.
- The body of the prescription provides the names and quantities of the chief ingredients of the prescription. Also in this part of prescription you find the dose and dosage form, such as tablet, suspension, capsule, syrup.
- The subscription, which gives specific directions for the pharmacist on how to compound the medication.
- The signature, gives instructions to the patient on how, how much, when and how long the drug is to be taken. This instructions arte preceded by the symbol “S” or “Sig.” from the Latin, meaning “mark”.
A prescription is a written order for compounding, dispensing, administering drugs to a specific client and once it is signed by the physician it becomes a legal document!
1. Answer the questions:
1. What is prescription?
2. In what language are the prescriptions written in Great Britain?
3. Is Latin used in prescription at present?
4. How many names does a drug posses?
5. What name of drug is difficult to use and remember?
6. On what does the dose of a drug depend?
7. Are the name and address of a physician written in the prescription?_______________________________________
8. How many parts does a prescription consist of?
9.What does the symbol “Rx” mean?
10.What information is in the body of a prescription?
Translate into English
1. В Англії рецепти пишуть англійською мовою з вживанням латинських слів.
2. Доза,дозування, часи прийому та лікарська форма пишуться латинською мовою.
3. Існує лише одна офіційна (фармакопейна) назва і декілька торгових назв одного й того ж лікарського препарату.