Make up 10 questions to the text
I. Learn the words and read and translate the text «Alexander Fleming».
To be born – народитися
Research work – дослідницька робота
Bacterial action – бактеріальна дія
Antibacterial drugs – антибактеріальні ліки
Assistant – помічник
A colony of dangerous bacteria –колонія небезпечних бактерій
Phenomenon – феномен
Ivestigations – відкриття
Growth – зріст
Nobel Prize –Нобелівська премія
Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) came from a Scottish family of farmers. He was born in August 1881, at Lochfield Farm, the youngest of eight children. He did research work at St. Mary’s Hospital under Almroth Wright, pioneer of vaccine therapy and became interested in bacterial action and antibacterial drugs. After military service during which he was able to make further studies of the problems of infections and use of antiseptics, Fleming returned to laboratory work. He was interested in antibacterial tissues.
The first fruit of his search was discovery of the lusoryme. One day Fleming’s assistant brought him a plate on which was a colony of dangerous bacteria.”This plate cannot be used for the experiment, - said the assistant. – There some mould has founded on it. I shall take another plate.“ Fleming was ready to allow him to do so. Then he looked at the plate and saw that there were no bacteria around the mould. Fleming began to study that phenomenon. He grew more colonies. By means of numerous experiments on animals he determined that this new substance was no toxic to the tissues and stopped the growth of the most common pathogenic bacteria. He called this new substance penicillin. His epochal discovery was in 1928 and had a great triumph. He became у a father of antibiotics.
A. Fleming received the Nobel Prize for his great discovery. But he said: “Everywhere I go people thank me for saving their lives. I don’t know why they do it. I didn’t do anything. Nature makes penicillin. I only found it.”
2. Abridge the text by writing out only topical sentences.
3. Fill in the suitable words:
1. A. Fleming was interested in bacterial … and antibacterial …. ____________________________________________________
2. His epochal …in 1928, of antibacterial powers of the would from which penicillin is derived, was a great … ____________________________________________________
3. A. Fleming is known as the “father of …”. ____________________________________________________
1. Read and translate the text «S.P. Botkin»
To be interested in – цікавитись чимось
To graduate from – закінчувати (учбовий заклад)
Physician – лікар (терапевт)
Under the direction – під керівництвом
Hard – наполегливо
Well-equipped – добре оснащений
Clinical experiment – клінічний експеримент
Theory of nervosism – теорія нервових захворювань
S. P. Botkin
S.P. Botkin was born on September, 17, 1832. After finishing one of Moscow schools, he entered the Medical facture of Medical University. Botkin was interested in medicine very much and soon become one of the best students.
After graduating from Medical Faculty in 1855 Botkin went to the Crimea where he worked as a physician at the Simferopol Military Hospital under the direction of the well - known Russian surgeon Pirogov.
In 1860 Botkin began to work at the Medico – Surgical Academy in Petersburg. In 1861 he became a professor of the Therapeutic Clinic at the Academy. He worked hard. He organized a well –equipped physiological laboratory for clinical experiments. One of his greatest achievements was his theory of nervosism, which in the most progressive theory in clinical medicine.
Botkin was not only a brilliant scientist, but an excellent teacher too. Many of his pupils became famous physicians and worked at Russian universities as professors.
During his whole life he never stopped working for the good of Russian people. His name is one of the most famous names in medicine and it will be always remembered in the history of Russian science.
2. Answer the questions:
1. When was S.P. Botkin born?
2. Where did he study?
3. When was he interested in medicine?
4. Where did he work with Pirogov?
5. What did he do at Medico-Surgical Academy in Petersburg?
6. What kind of laboratory did he organize here?
7. What was his greatest achievement?
8. Was Botkin only a scientist?
9. How long did he work in medicine?
Task III Grammar
1. Вставте артиклі там, де необхідно.
1. This is _____ house. 2. This is ______house in which I leave. 3. This is ______ butter. 4. This is ______ butter I bought for you. 5. My father is _____ worker. 6. His father is ______ worker who improved this machine. 7. This man is _____ teacher I told you about. 8. Ann’s mother is______ teacher. 9. His wife is ______ doctor. 10. His wife is _______ doctor who treated my sister. 11. February is ______shortest month. 12. July is _______ seventh month of the year. 13. It is ______ Indian film. 14. It is ______ film we discussed yesterday. 15. ______ cow is ______ domestic animal. 16. ______ carrot is ______ vegetable. 17. _____ carp is ______fish.
2. Напишіть іменники у множині.
3.Напишіть іменники у однині.
4.Оберіть правильну форму іменника у дужках.
1. Two___________________ were playing on the doorsteps (child/children).
2. A _________________looked round the corner of the house (woman/women).
3. The _____________was large, and had a faded Morris wallpaper (room/rooms). 4. A tall______________ of about fifty-seven came into sight (man/men). 6.The____________ran twinkling across the road (water/waters).
7. The _____________of the feast had been removed (remnant/remnants).
5. Утворіть присвійний відмінок іменника
the title of the book _____________________________________________
the economy of the country_______________________________________
the decision of the government_____________________________________
the work of the next week_________________________________________
the holiday of three weeks_________________________________________
the wedding of Tom and Jane______________________________________
the works of D. Steavens__________________________________________
the bedroom of my sisters_________________________________________
the house of my mother- in- law____________________________________
the hobby of my wife____________________________________________
Самостійна робота № 2
Тема: Опрацювання лексико – граматичного матеріалу: «Garlic», «Prof.Lesgaft’s Scientific Research», «Andreas Vesalius», «Sechenov and His Work on the Blood Cases», «Числівник», «Прислівник».
- тематичну лексику;
- внесок видатних вчених у розвиток медицини та фармації;
- лікарські властивості часнику;
- утворення ступенів порівняння прислівників;
- особливості утворення кількісних та порядкових числівників;
- особливості вживання дієслова to have;
- прочитати текст (вивчаючим читанням) та перекласти його;
- виконати лексичні вправи;
- опрацювати граматичний матеріал «Числівники» Л.Верба «Граматика сучасної англійської мови» с.148-153, «Прислівники» Л.Верба «Граматика сучасної англійської мови» с.174-176.
- виконати граматичні завдання.
1. Read and translate the text “Garlic”
Garlic – часник
Blood – кров
Condition – умова
To revive – відновлювати
Perennial – багаторічний
Bloom – цвітіння
Shade – тінь
Ray – промінь
Ulcer – виразка
Snake bite – укус змії
GARLIC (Alllum sativum)
The use of garlic is so varied and effective that its spread from country to country can surprise no one. As oriel of the oldest known medicinal herbs, garlic has left iisl fraces not only in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, but also, in the Orient and in China. Botanists, together with etymologists have discovered that the Chinese knew garlic at the time of the first Chinese written characters (or letters of the alphabet), because one character represents its Chinese name — suan.
However, it is believed that garlic did not originate in China, but Siberia. From there it spread to the Mediterranean, to Sicily, and beyond.
Garlic is believed to improve both people's physical and mental strength. It fortified Roman soldiers before a battle, Greek athletes before a race. It was chewed by the workers building the pyramids who needed every ounce of strength.
As me ancient scholar Pliny the Elder reports, garlic is a cure for colds, ulcers, snake bite, measles, and another 60 ailments and injuries. Garlic was also eagerly sought during dangerous outbreaks of cholera.
Recent research has justified many of these claims. It was proved in 1954 that garlic juice kills bacteria in only three minutes. Unfortunately, these excellent effects are accompanied by a strong smell which is releases when the bulb is crushed, though it can be moderated by drinking milk. Garlic also contains a number of important minerals, including calcium, iron and iodine. It is used to relieve high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries and heart and intestinal difficulties. It also protects people from infectious diseases. So while garlic has rid us of spirits and evil vampires, its campaign against illnesses goes on.
2. Make up the questions to underlined words:
1. The use oа garlic is varied and effective.
2. Botanists and etymologistshave discovered that the Chinese knew garlic at the time of the first Chinese written characters.
3. Garlic originated in Siberia.
4. Ancient people believed that evil spirits were chased away by the strongaroma of garlic.
5. Garlic improves both people’s physical and mental strength.
6. Garlic was used during outbreaks of cholera.
7. It was proved in 1954 that garlic juice kills bacteria in three minutes.
8. Garlic contains calcium, iron, iodine.
9. Garlic is used to relieve high blood pressure, heart, intestine difficulties.
Read and translate the text “Professor Lesgaft’s Scientific Research”
Anatomist – анатом
Physical culture – фізичне виховання
Surgery – хірургія
Foreign languages – іноземні мови
Basis of Theoretical Anatomy – Основи теоретичної анатомії
Muscles – м’язи
Muscular fibers –м’язові волокна
Nerve fibers- нервові волокна
Professor Lesgaft’s Scientific Research
Professor P.F. Lesgaft was born in 1837. He was a prominent Russian anatomist and a talented teacher. He was the first scientist in our country to work out the science of physical culture. He studied at the Medical Academy. After he graduated from the Academy he worked for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine. This degree was given to him in 1865 and in 1868 he received the Degree of Doctor of Surgery. Then he worked as the Professor at Kazan University. In 1886 he began to deliver lectures in Anatomy in Petersburg.
About 10 scientific works were written by Prof. Lesgaft. Many of them were translated into foreign languages. One of his main works was the book called The Basis of Theoretical Anatomy.
In one of his works which was written in 1892 Prof. Lesgaft divided the muscles into two basic groups static and dynamic. In his work they were called strong and skilled (меткі). He determined that the static muscles were connected with large surfaces of the bones far from the point of their origin; they were formed by short bands of muscular fibers; the dynamic muscles were composed of the bands of long muscular fibers.
His studies on static and dynamic muscles were continued by Professor A.K. Koveshnicova, who received many interesting findings. In 1954 it was determined by her experiments on animals that static and dynamic muscles were different in the number of nerve fibers and the form of nerve endings.
1. Write down the main idea of the first and the third paragraphs _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Write down the topical vocabulary ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Read and translate the text “Andreas Vesalius”
Structure of the human body – будова людського тіла
Skeleton – скелет
Joins – суглоб
Alimentary tract –кишечник
Heart - серце
Septum – перегородка
Blood circulation –циркуляція крові
Chamber - порожнина
Andreas Vesalius (1514 – 1563) is one of the greatest anatomists. He studied medicine in France. In 1537 he got the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In 1538 his first scientific works in Anatomy were published. In 1943 his most important book “On the Structure of the Human body” was written.
His wok “On the Structure of the Human Body” consists of seven books. The bones of the skeleton, the joints and cartilages were described in the first book; the muscles – in the second; the vessels –in the third; the nerves –in the fourth; the alimentary tract – in the fifth; the heart and respiratory system – in the sixth; the brain – in the seventh.
In all researches Vesalius studies the anatomy of the human body on corpses. He studied the structure of the inner organs of the human body taking into consideration functions. Vesalius was the first scientist to give a proper description of the human skeleton. He also determined that the right and left ventricles of the heart were not connected. He determined that there were no opening in the septum between the left and right heart chambers. It was a great discovery. Before Vesalius all the scientists considered that the left and the right heart chambers were connected by the opening in the septum. His discovery opened the way to the discovery of the pulmonary and systemic blood circulation in future. Vesalius did much to establish new and exact anatomical terms.
The great Russian scientist Pavlov said that the works written by Vesalius composed the first anatomy of the human body in which everything was based on scientific research work.
Make up 10 questions to the text.